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J Act of CongruM, In the year 1888. by Danikl T, Amks. In the Office of the Librarian (jf Congra$, Waahingtm. D. C. 

Vol. XII.— No. K 

Representative Pen 

Professor Scbofield 
as becu well-kDown 
J the public for over 
weiity years as a 
of the high- 
est type and is now 
(Uly Id the prime of life, his entiaucc upon 
be annals of time being the seventeenth of 
ouary, \Si5, at Poughkeepsie, on the 
lasic Hudson. 

None of the influence* which accrue 
'ealth and distinction attended his 
Irth, but rather the stern realities of life 
let him almost at the outset. Bereft of a 
ither's care before he learned to know 
m, he was left to aid in the struggle of 
pporliug a widowed mother and infant 
iiter, which pari he did most nobly even 
t the early age of twelve. 
Meanwhile his ruling passion for " the 
B of heauty " began to show itself very 
longly. Scraps of paper or pasteboard 
■ould be found traced and retraced with 
nes of rare grtice and forms of ariisiic 
nuty, and even upon the rough hoard 
ince would he seen portrayed crude pic- 
ares of his handiwork. 

Another sad blow soon came to him in 
the li>ss of his most estimable mother. Blest 
however with 9ierliu>r qualillea of heart and 
head, he bravely rose above nil contending 
misfortunes and at once bent all his ener- 
gies toward bettering his condition and ac- 
quiring an edunilion. To this end he toiled 
enrly and late, and proved himself to be of 
that metal which makes success inevitable. 
The following instances, still familiar to 
niiiiiy, may be ciied as thoroughly charac- 
: I ir of the boy. He would rise at 2:30 
iomplcte a newspaper route of several 
tnkc the steauu-r "Powell" at 6:30 
\i\vburg, sixteen miles down the river, 
• II |i;ipersin that city, cross the river and 
r. iiirci home by rail in time for school at 
iiiiii' o'clock. This round of duty or a sim- 
ilar one he repeated day after day, si'mmer 
ami winter ; and it wasperseveranLv in just, 
such strenuous labors that enabled him td 
defray all needful expenses, to attend the 
public school and eventually to enter East- 
man College 

Professor Scbofield began his life-work as 
a tiacher at the eurly age of seventeen, 

evincing at that time the rare talent of 
ability to give as well as to receive, and de- 
veloping since into the earnest teacher he is. 
In method he is original, making it a point 
to draw out the student and In training him 

Coleman's College, of Newark, N. J., also 
teaching in connection therewith private 
pupils in New York City. In 1882 we find 
him for a short time at the Youngstown 
Business College in Ohio. From thence 

careful to reserve an iftdividuality of style. 
In discipline he holds the " law of love " to 
be more powerful than that of force. 

After teaching and acting as correspon- 
dent at the collei,'e from which he gradu- 
ated, he was elected to take charge of the 
penmanship department of a college under 
the same management at Chicago, which 
at that time was the largest school of the 
kind in America. Subsequently he made 
an engagement wiih the Bryant & Siratton 
Business University of that city. In 1867. 
by reason of climatic influences, he changed 
his field of labor, choosing from numerous 
offers that of Warner's Polytechnic Col- 
lege, of Providence, R. I. He remained 
there ten years, during which time he also 
taught private classes in Boston. 

In 1877 he accepted a call from Clark's 
Model Business Training School, uow 

he was called to his present position as 
Principal of the Normal Penmanship De- 
panment of the Gem City College, which 
position he has filled with honor during 
the past five years, sending forth many of 
the best young penmen this country has 
yet prod-iced. 

Professor Scbofield is an intei'se and 
rapid worker. Aside from his regular and 
fnithfully-perfTmed dutiis as teacher, he 
has from time to time executed a vast 
amount of the flnesi artMic pen work, 
samples of which have been held by some 
of the highest dignitaries of the world, in- 
cluding the Pope of Home. Queen Victoria 
and the ICmpcror of Brazil. At present he 
it eneaged upon the " Penman's New Para- 
dise." which is expected to be one of the 
finest works of the kind ever published. 
His power of originality in designing is ex- 
ceptional and his ability to execute off-baud 
work simply wonderful. 

Among his numerous competitors none 
havn receivec' 

the press than he ; hut what is more telling 
than all is the fact that many of the most 
renowned penmen and able instructors have 
been his pupils. 

In person Professor Scbofield is attrac- 
tive, having a fine physique, handsome bear- 
ing, features well cut and striking, and 
countenance lighted by an inward pleasing 
grace. By nature he is retiring and unas- 
suming, liberal minded, playful in spirit, of 
sirong personal magnetism, and yielding to 

Peirced Copybooks Defended. 

Prof. Peirce is nothing if not brilliant 
He believes in " letting his light shine" and 
'• hewing to the line let the chips full where 
they may." He has probably written more 
good things and less weak things about pen- 
manship than any contributor to The 
Journal, and is entitled to the credit. In 
his last article, " The Science of Teaching 
Penmanship." he has scored a hit, and if he 
had said nothing other than "A book 
teacher is no teacher " he might always be 
remembered with gratitude and admiration 
for it. But his grouping of effect and 
cause shows him a mislaken diagnosticator. 
As will might he charpe the church with 
the responsibility for failure to eraditaie 
crime as to blame the copybook for the bad 
penmanship of the communiiy while ad- 
milting its inherent virtues and approxi- 
mate perfection. 

Because copybooks are not able to pro- 
duce good writers of tbemfelves it does not 
uecessarily follow that they are either use- 
less or pernicious or responsible for what in 
the nature of things cannot he expected 
from them. A copy in a book is merely a 
text embodying form and principle which 
are to be interpreted and illustrated to the 
papil by the duly qualified teacher through 
precept and example until mnsiered. What 
to write can be put in a book, ffaw to write, 
or the maunerof writing, must be shown by 
the living example or acquired by laborious 
experiment. Authors may prescribe lie 
W/iat but teachers must describe the ffoic. 
The teacher may dispense with the author, 
but the author cannot dispense with the 
teacher and command success. 

Successful authors must be good teachers, 
but successful tcHchers or penmen are not 
qualified thereby for authorship. The vital 
issue is with the teacher. Now, there are 
teachers and teache's, and while "a book 
teacher is no teacher," it is also true that a 
mere ink slinger is no teacher. And yet ink 
slingers form the majority of those looked 
upon as prnfessois of penmanship! And 
they modestly (sic) submit to the flattering 
insinuation without protest. 

But how many of ihem know more of 
pBcliycGlogy than as a hard word to spell and 
write? And while enthusiasm, cbeek and 
assumption, backed by a spread eagle, an 
oblique pen-holder, glossy ink and horse 
sense may carry one through to a successful 
result, a dozen make themselves ridiculous 
and merit the lurking contempt of educa- 
tors, and who shun us all for our trans- 
parent shiUowness, conceit and ignorance 
of ordinary scholarship which ofpen crops 
nut in the orlhoirrapby of our chirofraphy. 

Pschycology, in my opinion, is the wi-ak 
point of the profes'^ion, and accc unts for 
tiic n'irrow vi' W8 and prejudices so gener- 
ally entertaineil among tenchers of penman- 
ship regarding their co-laborers, the general 
teachers and copybook fraternity. And in 
all the articles published in penman's papers 
it is surprising that none have recognized 
the existence of the law.t of mind and its 
manifestation as the true basis of intelligent 

of the vast millions now taught 
in our schools, public and private, as com- 
pared with the handful who pass under pro- 
fessional penmanship tcQcbers, and the av- 
erage results compared wiih those of fifty 
wenty-flve years ago, it must be 

adraitled that the copybook is the 
I clause in our system of cducatioi 

til something better appears it ii 
I attainable standard for the work. 

>nd 1 

Recollections of an Expert. 

To the oulaide world it will be a nitttltr of 
astonisbmcDt to know of the metbods re- 
sorted to by villiaas lo establisb liclitions 
claims to property of deceased persons, and 
the frequency and persisteacy with which 
ihey lire applied. 

During the past three years, probably not 
It'is than one hundred instances of such 
fraudulent claims have come under the ob- 
servation of tbe writer, the opportunity is 
pre9cDt«d from the fact that death silences 
the party, who above all others, would be able 
to dcnouoce and defeat such claims. The 
chief difficulty in tbe way of sucb frauds is 
the establishmcut of some plausible consid- 
eration, which is most frequently attempted 
in the form of promisory notes as they are 
prima facie evidence of an obligation. Be- 
NidcH. there are book accounts, forged wills, 
deeds, morigages, claims of pretended heirs, 
etc. Many of these cases present circum- 
Htances which would furnish plots for the 
most extravagant romance. To set forth a 
few instances of such claims, is the purpose 
of this article. 

The Celebrated I-e«I» Will Caae. 

Many of our readers will remember the 
celebrated Lewis will case, which was tried 
in lloboken, N. J., some years since, iii 
wliich an old colored man, supposed by all 
who knew him to beabachelor. died, devis- 
ing by will nearly $2,000,000 to tbe Uuiti-d 
Slntes Government, lo be applied to the re- 
duction of the National debt. Not long after 
his di-cense a woman appi-ared cl .iming n 
dower in tiie estate as his widow, presenting 
tin alleged marriage cerliflcate, and vari- 
ous other evidences going to show that she 
was the lawful wife of Lewis. A most 
searching investigation and long litigation 
followed in which it was shown clearly by 
expert tesiimony that the alleged marriage 
certificate was a forgery. Other evidence 
was introduced to show that the claims of 
the pretended widow were an utter myth, 
and finally after a long trial the will was 
probated and the widow's chihn declared 

It finally appeared that the prcteudtd 
widow was only a tool in the hands of a 
band of experienced and prote-'Sion d for- 
gerd and criminals, who had conceived the 
plot and were the priuciiials in maintaining 
the contest a;.:aiust the Government. The 
conspinicy embraced, we believe, nine per- 
sons, all of wiiom were finally tried and 
couvieied of conspiracy and si-nt for long 
terms to Stale's prison, the pretended 
widow al the end turning Stale's evidence, 
and so escaping punishment. 

Old ICussell-s Motley. 

Another and more recent case was that 
of Miser Russell, who was for many years 
a printer in New York, and at the time of 
bis death left about $aO,OUO deposited in 
various savings bunks. lie was known 
aoiong his friends as a bachelor and he had 
frequently said he had no relatives living, 
aud ns far as his friends and acquaintances 
knew this was the fact ; hut immediately 
upon his death, a lawyer appeared repre- 
senting a woman residing in Michigan, who 
laid cltiim (o Russell's estate on the ground 
of being his daughter. To sustain this 
claim she produced letters which she al- 
leged she bad received from him at inter- 
vals during several years and one just previ- 
ous to his dea'.h. which were addressed to 
her as " My Dear Daughter." 

These letters were submitted to the writer 
for comparison with the genuine writing of 
Mr. Russell, to ascertain whether or not he 
bad written them. They were pronounced 
and proven to be forgeries, thus disapprov- 
ing (he claim, and the $30,000 went into 
the public treasury, as is the ciise of estates 
left by persons who are without heirs. 

Uiser PalQc and liU MllUoiin. 
Another case which tbe readers of the 
JouKNAL will remember as having been 
previously mentioned in these columns, is 
that of miser raiucwhodicd leaving money 
and )>ropcrly %'ariously estimated at from 

SoUO.lKNJ to $1,000,000. Uis life had kxhib 
iled the worst phase of a miserly existence 
Uescarcely allowed himself Ihe most meagre 
necessaries for existence, poorly clad, ami 
actually begging his food in low restau- 
rants, where he scrambled for tbe very leav- 
ings upon the tables. So lillhy was he in 
his habits as to be actually loathsome, caus- 
ing him to be frequently ejected from pub- 
lic°place8. Immediately after his death a 
man came forwanl, first with u power of 
attorney, purporting to be signed by Paine, 
by which be was authorized to conduct all 
business relating to I'aine's affairs, and olso 
made claim that a will bad been executed 
by Paine willing all his property to him. 

The power of attorney on being submitted 
to experts was demonstrated to he fraudu- 
lent, in that it was first given for a specific 
purpose, and afterward so changed by the 
party holding it as to be converted into a 
general and full power to transact all busi- 
ness for Paine, and all acts were to be re- 
garded as if transacted by Paine hiinselt. 
The will which he claimed to have been exe- 
cuted, could not be found, but the pretend- d 
copy of it was presented which was also 
proven to be a fraud, and the money left by 
the miser was tinally divided between his 
though distant relatives. 

Several cases which have lately been pub- 
lished in The Jouiinal we will refer to hut 
briefly, among them the fwmous case al 
Plymouth, N. H.. where a n»-te and check 
aggn-gating $7,000 were presented to the 
widow of tbe deceased president of the Mon- 
treal, Concord and Boston R, R. Co.. imme- 
diately after hisdeath. The widow declined 
to pay on the ground of hcrunbelicf that no 
such claim existed. The claimant when 
accused of forgery bronght suit for libel 
against the widow, claiming damages lo tbe 
amount of $5,000. The note and check 
were demonstrated by the writer In be 
fojged.and the party presenting them was 
held under bail for criminal prosecution, 
but fled lo p:irts unknown befurc the time 
came for bis trial. 

s at Newport. Vt., 
where immediately after the decease of u 
party there was presented to the executors 
of his estate a paper purporting to he a 
written renewal by tbe deceased justpriorlo 
his death of outlawed notes and accounts 
to the amount of several thousaod dol- 
lars, sufficient if allowed to absorb the en- 
tire estate. This paper was submitted to 

woman, both continuing lo be servants of 

the testator until his death, and to each of 
wbnm he willed $1,000. besides $500 to 
each of their several children. It would 
seem (hat the entire family had become soi I 
of pets with the old gentleman. Time 
passed on and some two years after the de- 
cease of the testator, the husband ealUd 
upon tbe executors and presented a note for 
quite a sum of money, alleging as his rea- 
son for its possession, that just previous to 
the testators death, he and his wife being 
present, tbe old gentleman handed him a 
sealed envelope saying. "John, take good 
care of this and do not open it until after I 
am dead, when it may be of great service to 
you." He look the envelope home and 
placed it in his bureau drawer, with other 
valuable papers, where it laid until tie fact 
of its possession passed out of bis mind. 

A few months previous to the discovery 
of the notes he said his house had been en- 
tered and robbed by burglars, and that 
shortly after the robbery he found h'jing 
in his front room, near Ihe window, several 
valuable papers, among which was the note 
be held, also a letter purporting to have 
been written by the burglars, which said 
"these papers arc of no value to us; we 
therefore return them, as they may be of 



^ ^'^^fe^^^.^iz;^^ ^^cz:tymt^ 

A Wall Street Instance. 

Anoiherinstance was that of a millionaire 
hanker upon Wall street, who died leaving 
property to the value of several millions ol 
dollars. Shortly after his death a woman 
presented n written document in tbe form 
of a contract and receipt for $2^.000 placed 
in the hands of the deceased some years 
before his death for investment and safe 
keeping. The contract being to tbe effect 
that the principal and interest were guaran- 
teed with sucb other profits as might accrue 
from the use of the money. At the time of 
this presentation tbe claim with Interest ag- 
grt-fialed nearly $40,000. 

Tbe contract which was in itself a ntte 
and receipt for the money, purporting to 
have been written by a lawyer, and several 
li'tters purporting to have been written by 
various disinterested parties furnishing 
facts and circumstunces tending to establish 
the claim, together with tbe genuine hand- 
writing of the claimant, was ptaci'd in the 
hands of the writer for examination and 
comparibou, when it was discovered that 
the writing which purported to have been 
written by five different persons was all in 
tbe disguised handwriting of the claimant, 
including the alleged contract and receipt 
for the money. These writings manifested 
a high order of manual skill, and much 
shrewdness in their various disguises. It 
was revealed by evidence taken al the trial 
that the author of this scheme had formerly 
been a professional teacher of writing, and 
lately a writer of novels, and certainly taking 
the entire scheme in all of its phases it would 
furnish a plot which would 

the writer, who pronounced the signature 
of the testator a forgery, and on trial so 
demonstrated the fact as to secure a verdict 
from the jury of foigery. Al this time the 
panics in this transaction are under indici- 
ment. iwo for furgery as priuci)>al8 and 
f.iur for perjury as witnesses to sustain a 
conspiracy, and all have a lively chance for 
doing the State a long term of service at 
honest labor. 

A Clever .Srheiue Unit nux AVoikcd Once 

Some three years since tbe writer was 
called to a small town in the Western part 
of New York Stale, to examine several notes 
which had been presented to the executors 
of a large estate, under circums'anccs that 
had awakened suspicioji as to their genuine- 
ness. Upon a careful examination and 
com[)ari9un of tbe handwriting in the body 
and signatures of the notes with that of tbe 
testator, it was very apparent that ihe notes 
iu question were forgeries. The circum- 
btauces attending tbe discovery and presen- 
tation of tbe notes were indeei romantic. It 
seems that the testator who bad been a far 
mer and speculator left an estate valued at 
at about $200,000. The nearest of kin were 
nephews and neices, among whom after 
leaving several legacies, the estate by ihe 
will was to be divided equally. 

Fur many years there had been employed 
as housekeeper by the testator a bright 
young woman who had frequently been 
called upon by him to do writing and not 
uufrequeotly at his request to sign papers 
for him. Tberu was also a hired man upon 
tbe farm who finally married the \ouug 

use lo you," signed "The Burglar." Tbe 
papers had, as he supposed, been shoved 
into tbe room by raising the window from 
the outside. It then occurnd to him that 
this note was a part of the contents of the 
envelope which bad been presented to him 
by the testator. These circumstances ap- 
pearing so plausible the note was at once 
allowed and paid by the executor-. 

A few days afterward the man called 
with another note which he said bis chil- 
dren had found under the edge of the house 
near tbe window, through which the re- 
turned papers bad been put. He supposed 
that this note had accidentally in the dark- 
ness dropped from Ihe hand of tbeburglar to 
The ground instead of going through the win- 
dow as was intended, and that the wii.d had 
blown it under the edge of the house, where 
it hadjlain until found. That story also 
appearing plausible, and the note aitpeoring 
to be in the genuine handwriting of the testa- 
tor, it was allowed by the executors. Shortly 
after this he presented a note for a nmch 
larger sum, which be said the children hud 
found under the edge of tbe horse barn. 
This, he said, he supposed had dropped ac 
cidentally and the wind bad blown it lo tbe 
place where it was found. The third being 
for a larger sum caused the executors to 
hesitate and take counsel before its pay- 
ment, It WHS at this time that the noles 
which had been pjiid, together wilh the one 
which had been presented, were submitted 
to the writer. Tbe payment of tbe tbiid 
note was declined and suit was brought for 
its collection, when tbe demonstration of 
forgery to court and jury was so complete 
that a verdict uf for^iry v us ulmobt lu- 


arfPtnsMAN s \ z^i :vis i .ioiknai/tjJc 

I thet 

■"iitiily rendered, not only 
jiuit. tml tLo!ie which had been paid. The 
partk-s therefore not only faiUd in thiir 
riaim upon the third note hut also were 
compelled to return the money which had 
already been paid on the previous ones. 
Tliese notes with the interest aggregated 
about $18,000. 

An Entiro Deed Forged Ontrlght. 

Hut perhaps one of the most dnring cn- 

spiracics that has come under ~" 

the oh-ervfttion of the writer was 

tli:it (if a forged deed lately con- 
it rl in Ulster County, this 

illustrations of the writing /T 

liicli forgery appear in ^ 

I rfion herewith. The facts / (^* 
(loped in the trial of the 
- rt- that upward of thirty 
ayo. a homestead valued 

. iiK- $l(i,Oi)0. wasleftby the 

I Imp lo bis family whieb at the 

III iif this deed consisted of 

t.Hif maiden diiugbters. who hud 

jr^iilcil and cootiuuid to reside 

uiii.T] tlie farm until their death. 
I'Ik- tirst sister died leaving 

her inlerest in the estate to the 

remaining three ; the secmd 

sister at ber death left a will be- 

ijinatbiug to an only nephew her 

I'iMii interest in an outlying 

|iii ■ of land, while her entire 

iiiUTf'ii in the homestead was 

wiii.ii to her two surviving sis- 

iii-i On the death of the second 

^i -ii r, >'lie willed bf r third inter- 

(vi ill the ."aid outlaying piece 

i>l huni to the nephew, and ber 

uiiilivided interest in the home- 
si. imI 10 the remaining sister. 

I III I lu decease of the third sister, 

>.lti iiHo willed her interest in the 

jiiirf of land to the nephew, v 

liniii(j,slead was willed to a grand ii 

h.r husband. 
^ViIhin a short time after the decfaso of 

th.- hisL sister, an old man living in the 

iiii'/iiborhood colled upon the widow nod 

the alleged Justice, and that all of the signa- 
tures were forgeries with the exception of 
that of the witness D.D.Bell.who wa'sa party 
1.1 the transaction and discoverer of the deed. 
It was shown by comparing his signature 
with those which he wrote in 1857. and that 
which he bad written in \8Si. at about the 
time the deed was produced, that the signa- 
ture upon the deed compared perfectly with 
the latter signature, but was widely different 
from that which he had wiitten in 18.')7, 

ing from ano'ber deed proven to have been 
written by the Justice in 1857. We 
also show the two alleged signatures of the 
Justice, Snyder, which appeared upon the 
deed, together with several of his genuine 

The testimony of the writer, who was 
called as an expert was that the writing 
ui)on the alleged deed was upon its face 
spurious, that certain forms of the leiters 
were repeated over and over with an accuracy 

Comparing the writing in a section of 
the forced deed, which we present, with 
a cnrresiiondiug section of the genuine 
deed, written within a few days of ihe 
alleged date of the forged deed, it will be 
observed that certain letters are made with 
a great uniformity, as for instance the word 
"of." which appears in lire two twice, in 
line five twice, in line six twice, in line eight 
twice, in lines ten and eleven onee, it will 
be perceived that one is almost an exact 
duplicrtte of the others, while in the genuine 

Qp7i7U7ie £7epc^ b?/ S77f/der, 


>2^ 7JIIC 


6^^"^^^ /U^a-r- fi^ <«<;^ 

^^Tfe^ a^n-i^ ^0/^:^ e/^y^^rSciJ ^!-<?-rAJ, ^ MZy 

a^dy Lft 

et^?^£>C^ J^^?-c/ /T-i^t^t-. /^- Ay.^-<U^^^yT^<f7T.^:^ (z^ii'C^ 

'^u. (Fc 

i^cts'T^ ^C^^z:*^^-^^ et^^C^"^' 

x-xx of the neplie 

lie had found ami 
I, intrusted to bim 
safekeeping, by 

, who 

and informed ilii'in 

)ng his old papiTs a 
years ago, in 16")7, 

vhich two ihirds of 
ilir interest in the homestead bad been 
< ..iivLved to their busbiiud and father, 
1 1m siiid nephew, and that the deed 
wniiid be surrendered to them if ibey 
would deed to him a half interest in the 
property conveyed, otherwise be would 
dislrny the deed or turn it over to the bus- 
band of the grand uiice, to whom the hi 
si.iiii had been willed. According to his 
lii niiuid the widow and children executed a 
iIm I conveying a half interest in the 

\\ lien it was sought to place this deed on 
ti.' nrd at the Uegister's Office, also the 
uiii , ininsferring the half interest, it became 
known to the parlies to whom the property 
Ii.mI been willed, and they at once took meas- 
in.-- 10 prevent the recording of the deeds 
on the ground that the oM deed 
forireiy. This was done by seeuriug an in- 
jiiuriion from the court forbidding their 
i-iT(ird. and at the sumc time suit uus 
iM-nujxht to nulify the old li.'n! :i^ an alir-ed 
iMijt-ry. At the trial the mu-l -in niiuiis 
fiTui-is were made to provi; tii.^ genuiimcvs 
of the deed- It was alleged thiit the budy 
of the deed had been written by a man who 
ill iy.j7 was Justice of the Peace, and that s 
siu'h he attested to its genuineness, and tli 
ikcil was also witnessed by the old man wb 
pri tended lo have discovered it, and wb 
ii|u>ti ibe witness-stand swore that he wt 
]Mi -tuiand saw the deed written, and signed 
I >- ;i witness at thctime it purported to beat 
• \ 111 There was also what purported to bt 
im signature of one of the maiden sisters, 
while the other was signed by a cross, as 
was all.-gcd in the deed on the account of 
li. 1 having at the time a disabled hand. 

-Many witnesses were put upon the stand 
\\ ho bad been familiar with the handwriting 
(>1 iln- alleged Justice of the Peace, who tes 
tiiinl that the body of the deed was in his 
bjiiilwriling and the signatures genuine. 
I i'nn the olber hand it was sought to dein- 
; by expert testimony that the body 
the handwriting of 


i will wa 

at the time of the alleged making of the 
deed, showing that while liis signature upon 
the alleged deed was genuine, it was written 
thirty years after the deed purported by its 



As to the genuineness of the writing in 
the body of the instrument we leave our 
readers to judge for themselves. We have 
reproduced a section of the writing in flie 
body of the deed, also a section of the writ- 

which indicated great care and thought in 
their execution quite otherwise than would 
have been the case if written thoughtlessly 
and naturally according lo babit ; that the 
writing was very stiff and formal, and at 
the best would be but a lifeless corpse as 
compared with the genuine writing of the 
Justice. While, from comparison, it became 
still more apparent that the deed was a 
forged simulation of the his writing. 


dceJ it will be seen that the corresponding 
word which appears in line two twice, in 
line five once, in line six three times, in line 
eight ODce, in lines nine and eleven once, 
considerably in its manner of con- 
struction. Furthermore it will be observed 
that the peculiar form Of the "of" as it 
appears in tbe forgery, namely that of the 
finishing stroke of the f striking up over 
tbe o, ending with a sweep to its left, is a 
poor imitation of that form as it ap- 
pears in tbe genuine deed in linc^ nine and 
here the turn is below the o. and 
is a short formal turn to the left of tbe staff 
of tbe f. It would seem that tbe forger, 
having observed this as a frequent form in 
tbe genuine wriling. bad made the mistake 
riably in the forged simula- 

Tbe word "of" appears in the entire 
forged deed 126 times, every one being 
made in tbe same manner, so that while it 
is a poor simulation of the genuine, it fails 
to present the variations as they appear in 
the habitual and natural writing of Mr. 

the forged writing. 

th a right curve, and 

s "-like form at the 
repeated over and 

egree of exactness 
ghout tbe forged deed, so that there is 
really but one form of tbe small p in the 
entire instrument, yet in the genuine writ- 
ing it w ill be observed that there is one kind 
of a p in line three, another quite different 
in line seven, another still diffeient in line 
L-igbt, two differing from these others acd 
each other in line nine, and so in line 
eleven. This letter also fails in the forged 
deed to present the variations which appear 
in the genuine writing. 

Take the small f at the beginning of a 
word, a good example of which appears in 
tbe forged instrument, as the first letter in 
woid ■■fifty," line three, also in the woid 
'■ first," line seven, and tbe same word, line 
eleven, it will be seen that each of tbi'se 
begin with a right curve, while observin). 
corresponding letter in word ■■fifty," line 
three, of the genuine writing, also in liof; 
seven, in the word " fir-t," it will be^een 
that the f begins with an initial stroke 
having a left curve instead of the right. It 
would seem that the forger, observing that 
tbe f begun with a curve, unwittingly 
curved his the wrong way. Take the capi- 
tal T, that appears in the first word of line 
one, also lines five and ten of the forged iu- 

Take the small p 

It invariably begins 

is finished with an 

center. This forir 


Tr"'! > Aki .lOUK.XAL 

strumcnt, it will be seen thai it is very like 
a capital Y, Ibc top of the flwl part is nearly 
horizonlal wirh the second at the top, while 
in the genuine is a " T," beginning line one ; 
hIho in line flvc and in line cigbt. il will be 
Been there that the initials arc quite difTerent 
in form, the flrat part riset high above the 
second so that it lacks the horizonital rela- 
tion as in the forged iusirunK-nt. Take tbe 
letter " I " at ihe beginning of a word as it 
appears three times in line one, and line 6ve 
nod elsewhere in Ibc forged instrument, it 
wilt be seen tbut tbe initial stroke is iDvari 
iibly a right curve, while in the genuine in- 
strument it is very frequently omitted, and 
when present is a left curve, as ao fx, 
ample of wbicb see lines five and six. Tbe 
ciipitnl B will be observed in line four of 
tbe forged instrument and the capital H, also 
Ibe U, each bnving tbe same and a very 
peeuliar initial stroke, all just alike, this 
uniformity is carried throughout tlic ectire 
instrument, every capital B, II and U be- 
ginning in the same way, but observing tbe 
corresponding letters in the genuine writing 
it will be seen that tbey are widely different 
and variable in this respect. 

Tbe small m's and n's perhaps present 
the most marked contradictions in their real 
characteristics as between the two writings. 
II will be observed that in the forged instru- 
ment connecliDg lines truce back only 
slightly, forming a sharp and open angle at 
Ibe top and bottom, while in tbe genuine it 
will be observed that the up lines tnice back 
almost to Ibc top of the down stroke and 
have round turns at the (op, making the 
letters of an entirely different cbaracter. 
Perhaps one of Ihe worst give-a-ways in the 
forced instrument is the W in tbe word wit- 
ness in line ten ; it is a modern Spencerinu 
letter, one which was not in use in tbe year 
1H57. It is probable that tbe forger of tbe 
deed wiis ii young writer, and that be hud 
before him as a copy a printed deed, only a 
sniiill jjort ion being in writing, in which timt 
word was printed, and not having the regu- 
lar form of Synder's \V before nim be un- 
wittinf,'ly made his own. wbicli tbe reader 
will see is widely different from any that 
are in the genuine instniment. 

This comparison we might exten-i to great 
length, but time and space both forbid. We 
now invite attention In the si^roatures. One 
of tlic hvosifi.uiluivs of Synder appeal-, 
one totlieforj:((l dfc-d. \hc other to the ac- 
ktiowlcdgeiiiciit i below these are given four 
genuine signatures of Synder. Itwill be ob- 
served that the first fatal error of the forger 
was in the second J. where the connecting 
stroke from tbr pri'cediug letter passes over 
tlicslatTsoiis tofiirin a borlzontaland ovalcd 
loop aiound it. uliik- in tbe genuine signa- 
tures Ibe loop of ibu J is to the left of the 
staff.and forms a nearly perpendicular oval. 
The next great mistake is in the construction 
of the '■ er," which in the genuine signature 
of Synder is so constructed as to look as if it 
was an "or," while the forged is very dis- 
tinctly er. The chief failure, however, is, 
in the flourish which sweeps around the 
signature; in tbe forgery, its width is more 
than two-thirds its length, while the lines 
are of a character that indicates that they 
were slttwly drawn, whileiu the genuine the 
sweep is such as to form an oval more than 
twice -IK long as it is wide, while the sweep 
is free, tbe lines smooth and the shade is low 
down toward the bottom, while in the other 
it is high up above the turn of ilie oval. 
Also the final dash or sweep of tbe ilourivh 
under the signature is entirely different in 
the method of its construction in the for- 
gery than it is in tbe genuine. 

Many more insUmces might he mentioned, 
but we leave them for our readers to dis 
cover. We next consider the signature of 
D. T>. Bell, who was one of the witnesses to 
the forged instrument, olso tbe parly who 
professed to have discovered it, and who 
was evidently tbe chief instigator in the 
forgery. The llrst is that to the deed which 
as he alleges he wrote in 1857. when the 
deed purports to have been executed, direct- 
ly under which arc two others proven to 
have been written in 1884, while tbe fourth 
is bis genuine signature written by him in 
1857. Tbe point to be determined wos, 
whether his signature upon tbe deed is more 
<.r less closely related to those written in 
1884, or that written in 1857. 

We also give the genuine signature of 

Xlelena DePuy. and her forged signature to 
the deed, which will be seen to have very 
litile relationship between the letters or 
their combination, while the D and u 
in DePuy and Ibe n in Helena are the same 
as in tbe body of the instrument, indicating 
that they were written by the same person 
who forged tbe body of tbe deed. The 
other name.lhatof Dina DePuy.beingsigned 
by her mark, there can be no comparison, 
except that it is evident that the party who 
le the body of tbe instrument wrote her 
le. It has not been our purpose to give 
anything like tbe full detail of facts set 
forth in our testimony at the trial in demon- 
stration of the forgery, we leave those for 
tbe readers of Tuk Jolhnai. to discover. 

An Imperial Author. 

A unique manuscript has been sold at the 
liue Drouot, in Paris, for 5,r>00 francs. It 
is an autograph by the First Napoleon of a 
history of Corsica, which he wrote at Ajac- 
cia in 1790. This MS. is in eight closely- 
written pages, and there is much in it which 
shows that the future emperor was then a 
disciple of Robespierre. He speaks with the 
fervor of an enthusiast of the social contract 
in referring to the action of the Jacobins in 

He writes in an involved style and in the 
orthography of au uneducated person : 

"The Jacobins saw that the broken frag- 
ment of a feudal system combined with 
laws instituted by prejudices without unity 
would not make a compact whole, but found 
only, on the contrary, an ill-combined patch- 
work, just good to perpetuate anarchy. 
Tbey understood that palliatives >vere out of 
dale, and that it was necessary to play dou- 
ble or quits to run all risks and to employ the 
strongest means. They began by preaching 
the grand principle of tbe community of 
goods of equality, the sovereignty of the peo- 
ple and of the illegality of every authority 
that does emanate from a popular vote. 
Well, in a few days they changed the whole 
face of things in the island. 

"If they had had time to strengthen their 
work in spite of the priests what a spec- 
tacle tbey would have offeiid to Kurope in 
a government founded on reason at the 
gales of Rome ! A government of men of 
the Rue de Provence, a free government 
amid aristocracy, feudality and tyranny? 
How in tbe world would corrupt nation.i. 
stultified and brutalized under the sceptres 
of kings and bisliops, have been able to 
resist collision with healthy, robust, free 
men ? How could it have resisted when 
Athens alone resisted and knocked over the 
combination of all Asia V" 

There are in the expressions elsewhere 
many allusions which, if they render the 
text ungrammatical and often obscure, show 
a brain which thought too rapidly for the 
band to set down the ideas that crowded to 
the tip of the pen. The young historian in 
many cases made his meaning more appa 
rent by interlineation. His obscurity and 
awkwardness are not caused by a want, but 
a congestion of ideas. 

He often erases, often changes, often cor- 
rects, but his manuscript is the sincere re- 
of his mind :n 1790. He dwells on the 
degradation of the governed classes all over 
Europe, and insists on French armies, pos- 
sessed with tiie geni 
joicing at their new 
hound to beat then 

IS of libeity and re- 
■born freedom, being 
and overthrow the 

How Bad the Bad Writing Is. 

A great deal of our bad writing is so bad 
that nothing can be done with it but let it 
alone. It does not rise to the height of 
being false or inartistic ; it is a mere mush 
of words. No criticism of il is possible. It 
ity drenched off tbe page and Ihe page 
dried in the sun. The author cannot be 
healed or helped. The trouble is organic. 
One might indeed say to him : ■' Go back ; 
go to school ; learn the alphabet ; he born 
again; die and become a different person. 
Perhaps the next time your mind will be 
less flaeial." But il does no good. He 
likes to live as well as the rest. He likes 
the mush. It does not seem to him mush. 

The Study of Phonography. 

160. Of and Aar« arc added by the/hook 
to both straight and curved stems, though 
it is used on curved stems in only a few 

167. An, and, own. hetn and than are ad- 
ded by the n hook to straight and curved 

V, .ee„.k. 

168. There, their, tJiey are and other are 
added to straight stems by the tr book. 

Are thera..,rrr^ by thriir-!^. 

each olher.^... which they are.t/.... 

169. Of the and haze the are added to 
straight stems by the v hook and halting. 

no. Of their, have their and after are 
added to straight stems by the/ hook and 

n .If their. ..,,V.. afte 
uld have their. _... 

171. Not is added by the n book and 

uld not..,,., will 

172. Another is added by the n hook and 

173. //) before some is represented by the 


, r:<'..bett,r than, i 


Been J.J, Than ■r'^ y V.J- . 
/^..S-'....Tnere.^ .V^^.. I 

.^.. The, are.^'.l/. \. ...Other J.. 
.>."^-.J'...tJ.,.. Of the-it I ^ 

p ^ - .^. .v...'x 



> .A-^y 


iiipabte of 
a/I of 
tbfiik of 

Had you gone th<;ro 
did you remain there 
in all otbT cases 
for ibe a»ilte of the 
e tbf Ir 

ct of Saturday afternoon 

f New York tbey did not 

it may not be 
may not have been 

from our own 

have been 

havinp been 

longer than 

bad we been there 
had you been there 

did you have auytblng to 


about the Sea. 

(Contraotlons, t}rl 

f sIjTDB and words out o 

position, except ana 

, an, are. as, but, do, /rmn. 

hat. hart. kU. is, of. 

our. that, the, thetn, thisf, fo. 

icith, when, what, are italicised ; consonants repre- 
sented -by up-slrokes ore llallciBed; words to be 
joined In phrases are endoaed in pfirenlhesi-s- 
OnlysQch pbrasea are Indicated as have already 
been explained] 

(Every man) (ought to) (cross the) ocean 
(at least) once (for the sake of) finding (how 
many) «es (have been) told about it. Men 
(may have been) (in tbe habit) of telling Ibe 


truth (on Ibc) laud, (but an) ocean breeze (variety of) 

(niiikoMhem) {cajMibUot tbe) biggest stories. 

Tbty see birtowsfas bi^'b as tee) Aip». and 

wlm!es (as long as) a cburch. (We have been) 

(able to) find some things (that have l)een) 

reported (but not) a/1. (Wc have) heard 

that fleasickness makes one desire to jump 

•overboard. (Onr day) (on our) ship among 

a hundred seasick passengers wc saw (not 

one) booking (at the) sea (a« though he) 

board) some of them h»vc /ost {sl\ their) 
money. (Two or three) have won every 
thing and (tbe others) have /ost. Tbe soi/ors 
(have been) aconstautlentertainment. (They 
are) a/ways interesting. (Each of tbem) bas a 
history. Sometimes his l\U (has been) a 
tragedy, sometimes a comedy. (Tn his) iaugh 
(is the) freedom of the sea and tbe wildness 
of ihc wind. We ean hard/y keep from laying 

yciirs. and siiil no indication of n new edi- 
tion. By way of consolation to those who 
want it and cannot get it one of the authors 
writes: "The truth is that the employ- 
ment of it increasfs the time necessary to 
lake a full course, but it is an undoubted 
benefit to pupils who are struggling to learn 
without a teacher. Many of the moat rapid 
Munson phonographers were qualified be- 
fore the * Phrase Book " was projected." 



Advanced Reading Lesson.— Swallowing 


H V ■ 




I,.— ..%^c 



ZA. 1 


Elizabeth Stuart Phelps is suffering from 
iu affection of the eyes, which compels her 
o have all her correspondence and literary 
vork conducted by o 

A Word on Handwriting. 

"Writes l)adly, does be ? Ob. that 
doesn't mailer; I've generally found that 
boys who could write well were little good 
lit anything else." 

So spoke the headmaster of a large public 
school when discussing tbe penniansbip of 
!i favorite pupil, who was a prodigy in tbe 
matter of Latin verses and Greek roots, but 
whose writing would have been unworthy 
of a small boy in a preparatory school. 
What with letters of ali shapes and sizes, 
some sloping to tbe right, some tumbling 
over one another to tbe left — his exercises 
looked very much as though a spider had 
contrived to fall iuto tbe ink-pot and then 
crawled over a sheet of paper until he had 
got rid of the ink that covered bis body and 
legs. And with the headmaster's dictum 
to encourage bim in his carelessness, it is no 
wonder that matters did not improve as the 
boy passed from school to college, from col- 
lege to professionalism. He had been taught 
to consider bad writing a sign of genius, and 
the resvOt was. he wrote plenty of clever let- 
ters and essays which no one but himself 
could decipher. 

And is not this typical of hundreds and 
thousands of cases at the present day ? 
Partly because handritiug is not taught so 
carefully and industriously as in by gone 
times, partly because of tbe headlong speed 
which chnraclerizes most of our daily trans- 
actions, whether in private or public life, 
there seems to be some fear lest penmanship 
may become almost as much a lost art as 
letter writing. — Cassdl's Magazine. 

vould iike) to get (into it.) (We have 
D) told (that the) saifs of ships whiten 
every sea ; (but we have) found (that the) 
cry of "Ship— ho!" (is so) rare (that it) 
brings (aU the) f passengers (to their) feet. 
(We have been) told of the sense of deso/a- 
tion when (out of) (sight of) iand, (but we 
titink) in a popular steamer such a feeling is 
imj}o*giblf. (We t'eave) a tcorld behind ; (but 
we) take a imrld (with us.) Our desire to 
know bow far (we are) (from tbe) shore is 
(no greater than) to know how far the shore 
is (from us.) Men (by the) third day ou 
shipboard turn inside out. I rffer (to their) 
characters not (to their) stomachs. Their 
generosity (or their) selfishness, their cour- 
age (or their) cowardice are putcut, W|j:ii 

hold with these saitor boys (as they) bend (to 
their) work (singing their) strange song of 
(which we) catch [Iiere and there) a stanza. 
Heaven {give them) a steady foot while run- 
ning (up the) slippery rat/ines to reef the 
toi>sai1 1 

• All words beglniitDff with oirr are written in 
first position wlibnut regard to accent, 
t n is omitted. 

Phonographic Notes. 

We receive a great many letters asking 
whore the " Munson Phrase Book" can be 
l>rocurcd. It has been outof print fully two 

This is true. It Is also true that with the 
exception of about one hundred phrases 
which should be ciilled phrase contractions, 
the book contains only such phrases as are 
formed accoiding to tbe rules of phrasing 
given in the test-book. A list of these is 
rather a hindrance than an aid, as the learner 
is apt to fancy that they are to be memor- 
ized, when, if be understands the principles 
of phrasing he knows already how to 
form, with a few escrptions, all the phrases 
on the list. 

A slenograpber once said to Senator 
Evarts, "Mr. Evarts, your long sentences 
trouble me." His quick retort was, " Only 
criminals are afraid of long sentences." 

Type Manufacturers. 

The Methoda Kmiiloyeil li> the FomuUies 
Of the Present Day. 
Gutenberg. Koster(if he ever lived), and 
most of the early printers, made their own 
type, and this, indeed, is the germ and key 
of the whole industry. The making of the 
type is now a calling by itself — the trade of 
type-foundtr— but it is most curious that 
up to the invention of the type casting 
machine in 1838, by an American, David 
Bruce, Jr., of New York, there had been 
scarcely any improvements in the process 
since the early days. Then, iis now, in all 
probability, the type-founder cut first bis 
"counter-punch" of hard steel, which 
stamps iuto the end of a tiny bit of soft 
steel the interior part of tbe lettir to be 
made. It is a patient man who must do 
this work, which is cnmplet* d by cultiug 
away all the superfluous metal outside the 
lellt;;-, leav" 

ef tilt letti-r A, of ihe 

pat I 


smoke jjroof of his die shows the punch 
cutler that his A is perlect, he hardens the 
bit of steel, and with successive blows oi 
this die upon a bit of copper makes thi 
for liny number of type. If it is a 

large letl. 

niolil. with tliL'-e ni;i 
by hand, in the old f 
letters suwn apart ; b 
castiu the little casi in 

rooms, where the 
have been mixed i: 
per proportion 

must be " hard, yet not britile ; ductile, yti 
tough ; flow freely, yet hardening iiuickly.' 
Il is kept tliiid in a little fiiriiiur under the 

to recti V.' 11. 'lU w.j.i,.: ui.aii:, t-iiii^the 
end of the nmld, and us Ihc lutter jumps 
back with its quickly cooling charge of 
metal, the matrix frecsilself from the mold, 
the upper half of the mold pops off, and the 
formed type is tossed out instauler. Thence 
the tiny bit goes to the breakers, boys who 
break off tbe waste "jet" of metal ; rub- 
bers, with leather-protected finger, sitting 
at a large circular stone, lub down the 
rough edges ; girls set up the types in long 
rows into a "dressing block," in which 
they are held while tbe dresser with a plan- 
ii,,/t/.f.t ,_rri>r.v'->; iheir understandings and 
sliiM- ili.:i -I'ir- perfectly true. After 
|);i .!_ I, I , i . 1 lion of his magnifying 
^'1 1 1. r-i go to u haven of rest, 

I,, I ■',. ; I . I ^ orders, while the had 

The Editor's Leisure Hour. 

I EUY rarely liis a writ- 
ing untensil been put 
upon the market wUicli 
has come »o c|uitkly niid 
securely into popular 
, favor as Ames' Best Ptn. 
•n wbcD wc coDsider 
ai a Bupcnor article 
thie pen is, tlie number 
of ibe comm£ndati"D8 
_ received, and piirticu- 

iarly the cbarncler of the commendors, it is 



AmeB" Best Pen biw come to stay, 
long line of experiments before tbis success- 
ful product was evolved, our inatructione to 
ibo makers was to makf a gtod pen—thf hat 
pfn that can bf made. The price was a mat- 
ter of secoudiiry imporiance, because we 
knew that the purchasing public could tell 
a good thing when ihey saw it. 

Peerless: Luxurious— Ames' Best Pen. 

i si» 

There is a watch in a Swiss 
tbree-mxteentbs of an iocb in uiametcr, in- 
serted in the top of a pencil-case. Its little 
difil not only indicates hours, minutes and 
seconds but also days of the month. It is 
a relic of the time when watches were in- 
serted in snuff-boxes, sbirl-studs and fingcr- 
rintjs. Some were fantastic — oval, octan- 
puliir. cruciform, or in the shape of pearls, 
tulips, tic. 

Il bus been found by experiment that a 

pendicularly a weight of Vi ounces. An 
experiment was made with a larger snail, 
weighing 'j ounce, and so placed as to draw 
the loa'l in a borizoutal posilinn. Reels of 
cotton tothenumberof twelve were fastened 
to il, with a pair of scissors, a screw driver, 
a key, and a knife, weighing nltogetber 
seventeen ounces, or fifty times (he weight 
of the snail. The same snail when placed 
on the ceiling was able to travel with a 
weight of four ounces suspended from its 

Houk-Mnklng In Ye Olden Time. 

Whenever a royal book-Iovcr, in the day 
of manuscript books, gave an order to have 
such or such a classic copied by the most 
skilled book-maker in the kingdom and 
ornamented by the most eminent miniature 
painters of the day. it was customary to 
miike these miniatures faithful portraits of 
the court beauties and favorites, the queen 
naturally at the head. This lent an addi- 
tional charm to the book in the owner's 
eyes, who could, d.% he turned over the 
pa?es, gaze upon fond familiar faces paiiiied 
with exquisite art and framed in burnished 

An essential element of interior decora- 
tinn is appropriateness, which imparts its 
charm both to classic details and fanciful 
creations. The renaissance stj'le has given 
great encouragement to elegant and luxu- 
rious interior decoration. Charming picto- 
rial designs are uow brought out in friezes, 
especially in paper mache and lincrusta Wal- 
ton, the surfaces showing metallic hues or 
other colors. The pattern is often simply 
Belt-colored, thus leaving the effect to light 
and shade. Continuous designs of stems, 
tlowers or fruits, or successive pictorial pan- 
els, each with its distinct tableau, arc thus 
presented to enliven the subject. 

Dr. Wallace, the eminent English evolu- 
tionist, states that, iu the distribution of 
color among birds and insects, those most 
liable to be attacked are less showy and at- 
Iraclive. Among birds, when the coloring 
of the male and female differs, that of the 
latter is always dull, she being more likely 
to be attacked when on the nest or caring 
for Iter young. But when the nests are in 
retired spots, or in hollow trees, the plumage 
of both ia equally bright. Brilliantly-col- 
ored insects are rarely fit for food, and edible 
species will actually imitate the inedible, for 
the reason that birds refuse to touch insects 
closely resembling those Ibey have found 

Evolution : They are great travelers, 
and always go in a trot. Their quadrupe- 
dal locomotors are in some way connected 
with an internal grunting arrangement. 
This capability for locomotion, and their 
innate sinfulness, scientilically explain their 
existence in West Virginia and their an- 
cestry. There is no authority for even sup- 
posing that all the swine historically de- 
scribed as going down into the sea or lake 
with devils in them were drowned. The 
Sinaitic, Vatican and Alexandrian MSS. 
say "choked"; so I stake my scientific 
reputation upon the assertion that the 
fiozorback Hogs of West Virginia are de- 
scended from the survivors of those owned 
by the A. D. 1 pork-raisers, for the reason 
that they have more devil in them than can 
possibly be compressed into modern pork, 
have cloven feet, a long tail, nnd never 
miss an opportunity to upset a bucket, eat 
a week's washing, or squeal when the baby 
is asleep.— 7'oic JJodgt, in the A> 
Mayazine for December. 

ting point by several of the spectators 
■as, lor the four miles and return, nearly 
ineleen minutes, not very fast for ostriches, 
3 they said, but too rapid for English hun- 
irs. I ^uow .—yotea of an African TrauUr. 

A lady told me the other day a painful 
little incident relating to wearing birds on 
your bonnets and bats. I will try to give 
her own words. She said : 

"One day our pastor said (during ser- 
vice) that when he was in Florence a lady 
came to him and said : ' Do come with me 
and hear those birds sing, oh ! such mourn- 
ful notes ! ' There was a room full of birds 
iu very small cages, and these birds were 
all blind; Ihcy bad their eyes put out. In 
the night the owners take them outside the 
city and hang the cages in trees The trees 
are then all smeared with tar. These birds 
keep up their pitiful singing, and other 
birds are attracted to the cages and are 
stuck on the tar, and then they are caught 
nnd their eyes put out. And these birds 


We generally think of minerals as dead 
lumps of inactive matter. But they may be 
said to bealive, creaturesof vital pulsations, 
ai.d separated into individuals as distinct as 
tlie pines in a forestorthetigersin a jungle. 
The disposition of crystals are as diverse as 
those of animals. They throb with unseen 
currents of energy. Tbey grow in size ns 
long as they have opportunity. They can 
be killed, too, though not as easily asan oak 
or a dog. A strong electric shock discharged 
through a crystal will decompose it, very 
rapidly if it is of soft structure, causing the 
particles to gradually disintegrate in Ibe 
reverse order from its growth, until the 
poor thing lies a dead shapeless ruin. 

It is true the crystal's life is unlike that 
of higher creatures. But the difference be- 
tween vegetable and animal life is no greater 
than that between mineral and vegetable 
life. Linna'us, the great Swedish naturalist, 
defined the three kingdoms by saying: 
" Stonrs grow ; plants grow and feel ; ani- 
mals grow and feel nnd move,"— ^. D. 
Walker, in Christmas Wide Auiakt. 

Stranh'ers on the Throne. 

It is a curious fact that there is hardly a 
reigning monarch in Europe whose family 
is of the same nationality as the people gov- 
erned. The house of Austria is really the 
house of Lorraine, and even in their oripin 
the Habsburgs were Swiss. Aiid if the Em- 
peror Francis Jot^eph be not. strictly speak- 
ing an Austrian, still less is be a Hungarian. 
althout.h he is king of Hungary. The king 
of the Beltiansisa Saxe-Coburg; the king 
of Denmark a Holsteiner ; the infant mou- 
11 ch of Spain is a Bourbon ; the king of 
Italy H Savooard ; the king of Roumaoiaand 
Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria are both for- 
eigners the founder of the Bernadotte dy- 
nasty of Sweden was born at Paris less than 
a century and a quarter ago ; the Czar is a 
Holslem Gottorp. and the king of the Ilel 
lencs I** likewise a Holsteiner, Even in the 
British royal family there is very little Eng 
h'^h blood left. The Ilohenzollerns were 
on|,nally Suabiaiis, and therefore paitly 
Bavarian and partly Swiss. Neither was 
tbc historic house of Orange, in which pa- 
triotism has nearly always been the first in- 
stinct, Dutch to begin with. 

Ostrich Ilacing iu South Africa. 
We were treated to an exhibition which 
was a novelty worth travt^ling miles to see 
—an ostrich nice. Two little carts, the 
frames of which were made of bamboo and 
the wheels similar to those of a velocipede, 
weighing, all the gear included, thirty- 
seven pounds, were brought forth and four 
very large ostriches trained to the business 
and harnessed abreast were attached to 
each one. The race-course was a fiat piece 
of country about four miles and a quarti r 
in length ; the distance to be traveled was 
four miles straight away and return. Two 
of the smallest specimens of African human- 
ity ever seen, less than four feet in height 
and weighing about seventy-two pounds 
apiece, Bosjesmen, pure and simple, were 
stlecitd as charioteers, and all was ready. 
I had been provided with a magnificent 
sixteen hands high English hunttr, having 
a record placing him among the very best 
saddle horses of Cape Town, nnd was quar- 
ter way toward the turn nf the course, 
pushing my fresh steed to do his best, when 
the feathered bipeds started, and before I 
reached the turn the ostrich chariots had 
passed mo, going and returning like a flash 
of lightning, I did see tliem, and yet so 
quickly did they vanish into distance that 
a pen picture, valuable for its accuracy, 
cannot be giv«D. The time taken at the 

arc killed and sent to America for ladies to 
wear on their bonnets. 

" And I looked around the congregation 
to sec what ladies had birds on their bon- 
nets, and I was glad there was none on 
mine, and I don't think I can ever wear u 
bird again." — Wide Awake. 

Auc-lent Cities. 
Nineveh was lo miles long, 8 wide, and 
40 miles round, with a wall 100 feet high, 
and tiiick enougU for three chariots abreast. 
Babylon was .50 miles within the walls, 
which were 87 feet thick, and 350 high, 
with lOO brazen gates. The Temple cf 
Diana, at Eplie&us, was 420 feet to the sup- 
port of the roof, It was 100 ytars iu build- 
ing. The largest of the pyramids is 401 
feet high, and (153 on the sides; its base 
covers 11 acres. The stones are about 30 
feet in length, and the layers are 380. It 
employed 33,0000 men in building. The 
labyrinth, in Egypt, contains 300 chambers 
aud 250 halls. Thebe^. in Egypt, presents 
ruins 27 miles round. Athens was 25 miles 
round, and contained 2oO,000 citizens and 
400.000 slaves. The Temple of Dclphos was 
so rich in donations that it was plundered of 
$500,000, and Nero carri- d away from it 
2f)0 statues. The walls of Home were 13 
miles round. 

, Age. 

The following figures may be made a 
source of considerable amusement and won- 
der, in this manner : Have the person whose 
ago is to be found state in what columns the 
figures representing his age appear. 

The figuresat the top of the columns thus 
indicated added together will represent the 
number of years the person is old. 

The cocoa ox cacao tree is an evergreen, 
said to resemble a young cherry tree. The 
flowers grow in clusters, the pods are not 
unlike cucumbers in form, and of a yellow- 
ish-red color; they contain from twenty to 
thirty nuts about tbc size of almonds, con 
taining each two lobes of a brownish hue 
After the seeds are freed from the pod, they 
are dried, and then are cither simply 
bruised, or are crushed between rollers 
Chocolate is also produced from the cacao 
tree. The seeds are gently roasted, shelled, 
and reduced to a paste, when various spice 
are added. It is put into moulds, and iuj 
proves by keeping. 

Cuvier. one of the greatest Daturaiisls 
tliat ever lived, first bad bis interest in 
Ti:ilural bistory roused by the action of two 
Hwallows. These little birds bad built n 
□est ju-t ouUide of his window. One day 
a Btraai;:c bird took possession of the nest. 
The swallow and his mate chattered to- 
gether for fiome time and then flew away. 
Presently they reappeared with a long Iraiu 
of swallows, each bearing some mud in its 
claws. They flew close to the nest, and as 
they passed the strange bird, threw the mud 
they carried directly into his face, thus kill- 
ing and burying the intruder in the place of 
his crime— the nest he had stolen. From 
this time Cuvier devoted himself lo the 
study of the bubits of birds, insects, quadru- 
peds and other animals. 

German papei-s call to mind that Kai-er 
Wllhelm in his ninety years has survived 
DO fewer iban seventy-two reigning sover- 
eigns who were his contemporaries, viz. : 
Fifty-two Kings or Queens, eight Emper- 
ors, six Sultans, and six Popes. Of these 
three were Kings of Prussia, Frederick 
William II., Frederick William III , Fred- 
erick William IV.; two were Kings of 
Hanover, two Kings of Wurlemberg, two 
B Kings of Bavaria, three Kings of Siixouy, 
King of Wc&tpbalia (Jerome Bonn 
; King of Greece, one King of 
Belgians, three Kings of Holland, three 
B of England, three Kings of France, 
& Kings of Sweden, four Kings of I>cn- 
irk, three (or four) Sovereigns of Portu- 
, five Sovereigns of Spain, five Kings of 
Sardinia, six Kings of Naples, two Emper- 
ors of Austria (one of whom was the hist 
of the former line of German Emperor-^). 
two Emperors of France, four Czars of 
Russia. He has also survived twcniy-one 
Presidents of the United States. 

The earliest ref< rence to shaving is found 
in Genesis xii., 14, where we road that 
-loseph, on being summoned before the 
King^, shaved himself. There are several 
(ihertions as to shaving in Lcvjlicus, and 
tl:c practice is alluded to in many other 
jtiirts of Scripture. Egypt is the only coun- 
;ry mentioned in the Rible where shaving 
vv:i« practiced. In all other countries such 
iui act would have been ignominious, 
ilcrodolus mentions that the Egyplian.s a!- 
Inwrd their beards to grow when in mourn- 
in.:. So particular were they as lo shaving 
;il other limes that to have neglected it 
was a subject of reproach and ridicule, and 
whenever tbey intended to convey the idea 
of a man of low condition and slovenly 
!ml)its the artisis represented him with a 
Iht'urd. Unlike the Romans of a later age. 
I lie Egyptians did not confine tbe privilege 
tif shaving to free citizens, hut obli^-cd 
iliL'ir slaves to shave both beard and head 
The priests also shaved the head. Shaving 
the head became customary among the 
Unmans about 300 B. C. According to 
I'liuy.Scipio Africanuswas the first Roman 
who shaved daily. In France the custom 
nf shaving arose when Louis XIII. came 
In the throne young and beardless. The 
Anglo Saxons wore Iheir beards until, at 
iIm' conquest, they were compelled to follow 
I 111.' example of the Normans who shaved. 
Irom the time of Edward III. to Charles I. 
lunids were universally worn. In Charles 
1 1, "s reign the mustache and whiskers only 
were worn, and soon after this the practice 
of shaving became general throughout 
Europe. The revival of the custom of 
wtaring tlin beard dales from the time of 
I Ik- Crimea. 1854-.J5. 

The Flmt Euglisli Country Xcwspaper. 

!n 1G05 appeared the first coimtry news- 
paper as the /,i'hm/«. Itutland and Stamford 
Mtreury. The pro.spec'us of one of these 
t :irly country papers, the Salisbury l^st- 
'IUI II, "or paequet of intelligence irom 
I i-incc. Spain. Portugal," etc., Sept. 27, 
I7lfi. ran thus: "This paper cootainsau ab- 
^ir.ictof tlie most material occurrences of 
tin- whole week, foreign and domestic, and 
«ill be continued every po.-t, provided a 
Millicient number will subscribe for its en- 
(^iuinigemenl. If 200 subscribe it shall be 
delivered to any public or private bouse in 

town every Monday, Thursday or Saturday 
morning by eight o'clock in winler and by 
six in summer for I'.d. each. Besides the 
news, we perform all other matters belong- 
ing to our art and mystery, whether in 
Latin. Greek, Ilebre*, algebra, mathe- 
matics, etc." By 17^2 the number of pro 
vincial papers had increased to fifty. A 
vivid description of the stale of the roads in 
this country in winler time two centuries 
ago is given in the following extract from 
the "Collections for Husbandry and Trade." 
March 10. 1093 : " The roods are filled with 
snow, we are forced to ride with thepacquet 
over hedges and ditches. This d&y seven- 
nigbt myboy with thepacquet and twogen- 
tlemen were seven hours riding from Dun- 
stable to Hockley, but three miles, barely 
escaping with their lives, being often in 
holes and forced to be drawn out with ropes. 
A man and woman were fonnd dead within 
a mile hence, and six horses lie dead on the 
road between Flockleyand Brickhill, smoth- 

and thus making a sudden break without 
any gradation of color between it and tlie 
ceiling, excepting, of course, in cases where 
the ceiling is very low : then the 
must be made without either 
frieze. When a plain color is desired as a 
background for pictures, the very cheapest 
and commonest paper often makes the most 
artistic and serviceable finish ; the yellow- 
gray, gray-brown and yellow-brown com- 
mon wrapping paper — ihe coarser the belt- r 
— makes a very effective and cheap coveriug 
fir a wall. Thispapercau be bought bylhe 
roll - 

It is estimated that there are about twen- 
ty eight miles of drainage— enough in length 
for tbc sewerage of a large town — in the 
system of sweat-tubes in the skin of an adult. 
Obsiruciing the outlets of this system clogs 
the whole and sends the drainage back into 
the heart of the city— a speedily fatal effect. 
The average amount of perspiration given 

CEljttt zt rnp^ 

nf tue foregumj 

a;rretmtbl^ ttnb xeec- 

mfi-lSuarii, mrh trcmsmttleh td 
me lEutttlg 0l iflr.i^ctiTnijrr. 

ChooKiiig Wall-Papec. 

Iti choosing wall-paper, great care should 
be exercised, as the color and general ap- 
pearance of most of the patternschaugevcry 
greatly >inder gas or lamplight. It is, there- 
fore, desirable to select three or four pat- 
terns, put them up upon the wallsof the room 
and examine their general effects carefully 
by day and night before making a final 
choice, for not only do some patterns and 
colors materially alier by artificial light, but 
some, especially green and blue, absorb an 
immense amount of light, and are therefore 
not fitted for any rooms which are to be 
economically lighted. In papering the walls 
of a dining-room there arc, of course, very 
many ways of treatment, and among the 
numerous good examples of paper-hanging 
DOW made there should be no difficulty in 
seleciiug some really good patterns, artistic 
in design and coloring. As before slated, a 
dado or wainscot forms a desirable basis for 
a dining room, a wide frieze a proper finish 
to the wall, instead of carrying up the gen- 
eral tone of color of the wall to the ceiling 
or cornice; Ibis suggests itself as infinitely 
more artistic than carrying up the same 
color or decoration lo the top of the room. 

off by a person in health is about two pounds, 
or two pints, daily — a quantity almost equal 
to that disposed of by tlie kidneys. It con- 
tains, in common with the other excretions, 
substances which, if retained, are harmful 
in the extreme. Also, the matter deposited 
in the clothing in the course of a week, and 
in warm weather especially, beginning 
speedily to decompose, is enough to sug- 
gest the eminent propriety of frequent 
changes, and washings and airings often. 
Sick lungs, liver or kidnevs call upon Ihe 
skin to do their work for them. The skin 
must, therefore, be kept in good condition 
lo do the work of three organs as well as its 
own. and. being so ready, may save a threat- 
ened life, Tlic skin nmy be trained to adapt 
itself losiubkn iind frequent changes. It 
has the same ea]i:t(:ily f<n- adapting itself to 

shrink and give off little heat through iis 
blood vessels and its sweat glands when ex- 
posed to cold, and will present a large ra- 
diating surface and much moislure when ex- 
posed to heat. A judicious iraining willen- 
ab'e the skin to adapt itself to sudden 
changes with safety.— A/c(«« bi/ Dr. S'lel- 

From human history we know that for 
several thousand years the sun has been 
giving heat and light to the earth hs at 
present ; possibly with some considi rable 
fluctuations, and possibly with some not 
very small progressive variation. The re- 
cords of agriculture, and the natural his- 
tory of plnnts and animals within the time 
of human history, abound with evidence 
that there has been no exceedingly great 
change in the intensity of the sun's heat 
and light within the last three thousand 
years ; but for all that there may have been 
variations of quite as much as five or ten 
per cent., as we may judge from consider- 
ing that the intensity of the solar radiation 
lo the earth is six and a half per cent, 
greater in January ihan in July; and 
neither at tbc equator nor in the northern 
or southern hemispheres has this difference 
been discovered by experience or general 
observation of any kind. But as for the 
mere age of the sun, irrespective of the 
question of uniformity, we have proof of 
something vastly more than three thousand 
years in geological history, with its irre- 
fragable evidence of continuity of life on 
the earth in time past for tensof thousands, 
and probably for millions of years. 

Here, then, wehave a splendid subject for 
contemplation and research in natural phil- 
osophy, or physics, the science of dead mat- 
ter. The sun, a mere piece of matter of the 
moderate dimensions which we know it to 
have, bounded all round by cold ether, has 
been doing work at the rate of four hundred 
and seventy-six thousand million, million, 
million horse-power for three thousand years 
and at possibly more, and certainly not much 
less, than that for a few million years. How 
is this to be explained? Natural philoso- 
phy can not evade the question, and no phy- 
sicist who is not engaged in trying to an- 
swer it can have any other justification than 
that his whole working time is occupied 
with work on some other subject or subjects 
<-f his province by which he has more hope 
of being able to advance science. — Fr&m 
•• The Sun's Heat" by Sir William Thmnaon, 
in Popular Science Monthly. 

Klectric Swords. 

One of the most interesting features of 
modern progress is the influence on modes 
of warfare exercised by scientific discov- 
eries. The bicycle has been utilized in Ger- 
many for mounting troops, and now we bear 
of an electric sword. It will be seen at once 
that the latter is an essentially shocking 
weapon. Strangely enough, it was invented 
in Shanghai. The warrior using such a 
sword has n battery — that is, of course, an 
electric battery — concealed at his waist. In- 
sulated wires run from the battery to the 
sword. When the point of the weapon 
touches an adversary the lattcris paralyzed. 
The wielder of the sword can be said to 
have made an electric charge. 

There is much that is luxurious and pleas- 
ing in the possibilities suggested by the 
Shanghai sword. In the first place, the vic- 
tims lo the weapons are not hewn down in 
a I)loody death. They perish neatly and 
quickly and do not soil the ground with 
gore. Of course, such scientific execution 
would take away much thatis poetical about 
a battle-field. No longer could the roman- 
cers revel in such phrases as "rivers of 
blood" and "gory pools." In fact, the 
eleclric sword would offer little more than 
an electric brush or an electric corset as a 
subject for imaginative writers. But it ap- 
peals at once to the lovers of the practical. 
If a warfare is really a necessary a<ljunct of 
human existence let us keep it as striclly 
abreast of the times as possible. 

The electric sword is a great advance on 
the weapon which has for so manytcntu- 
ries sprung from its scabbard to seek men's 
vitals. It has one great drawback, however, 
which may retard its popularity. It is apt 
to prove fatal. Imagine a Freitch deul 
fought with eleclric swords. Some one 
would be sure to meet with disaster, and 
French politeness would be greatly outraged. 
On the whole, it seems probable that the 
Shanghai weapon will not be received with 
favor in Europe, The great armed nations 
of the continent would feel reluctant to 
place lightning-rods on their troops, and un- 
less some bucb precautions were taken the 
electric sword would be invincible. 





AJdress. PENMANs 


The Journal'* General Agent for Canada it A. J, 
Small, whose htaUgvarUrt are 13 Grand Opera 
t/o'ue. Toronto. Elliott Fnuer, Seertlary " Circle de 
la Sallt," Qtiebee. iP. 0. Box IM), it epeeial agent/or 
that eiti/ and vicinity . The InternaticnaHfewt Co.'' 
11 Souverie Street {FUet Street), London, are lU 

iiig Scbofiold 

0. M. JeiceU. 

Pi-irueil Copybooks Defended .. 

//. W. Elhmrfh 




m . Aa KnUre 


. Paeka 
1 OaM 


: Reading and 

a Simf 

Oldtn Tin 


a Fleai The 
Making In Yo 

Uiiipvirarlea; Cliib-Tiitei Kxposlng a For- 

tiuiintUr-Quaiity !!!!"!! ^!!!,.!!'.!!; !!.!!!!.;, 

^fa^cut IT For, 

Instruction ill Pen-Work— No. 4 

//. W. mtibe. 

Lessooa on Movement Bxerolses— No. 2 

. ^, £. K. Iiaaee. 

A Discovery— Vorees 

In Hoferenoe to IIand(VTlUng 

Ci)ni)iltnient«ry Closing. 

Mistakes ut the P oat Office 

Our »VBi>optioCom>8pon(lGnl Srt Ion DeoV. hut 

ma*ba"™''8V.;' ■■.■.■,''.;;;■.;■.;.;;;;;,;".;; ;;;;.;■ 

Western Penman's Conventloo 

Souvi'iilr of Barnea' Penmanship 

ADVKnrisiMeim !•»- 


Portrait and Aut«(rraph of Pleldins Sohofleld . . 
bfOtlonB of Ponted and flenutne Doods. with 

SifinatureeC'ltccoIleotlonaof an Expert") 3 

Phonographic Serlpl 4 

Bxamplea of Arilstlc Bngrosslns o 

New Year'! Gmcthigs. 

Autograph Speolmens by Fleldine Sohoaeld! '. '. 
Movement Exerolsea-lUuslraUng Lessons by 


TuK Journal's Airroa&APu Alhuh 

I'pectniena by U, C. Spencer. J. W. Vincent 
and B. H. Spcnocr 

All Premiums to be Withdrawn. 

Od the 15th day of next March, all pre- 
miumt DOW offered in conneclioD with The 
.TotTRNAL yill be withdrawn, and all offers 
which may have been made in coonection 
with them canceled. 

The BUbBcription price for The Journal 
from that date, without premium, will be 
|1 a year. Xo expense or efforts have been 
spared to maintain The JouitNAi. at tlie 
head of publicalious of itB class in the world. 
The cost of its manufacture far exceeds thai 
of any other paper of its class— probably of 
all olhpr papers of its class in this counlry, 
at least, combined. Its mechanical execii- 
lion, printing, engraving, paper and typo- 
graphical arrangement are unyueslionablj- 
superior to that of any s^imilar publication, 
and a comparison of the method and quality 
of its monthly oulput. both from a literary 
and technical stp.udpoint, will not be less 

tbuugh, as in the matter of text, it by no 

means includes the total number of cuts 
printed. Many composite illustrations were 
grouped under a single heading, the actual 
numberprinted being considerably in excess 
of 200. It is not necessary to refer to the 
quality of this work nor immodest to say 
that these illustrations areunapproached by 
those of any conlemporary. Make your 
own comparisons. 

Returning to the subject of premiums. 
We have concluded, jnall the circumstances, 
that if The Joubnal is worth buying, it is 
worth p 'ying one dollar for, apart from any 
outf-ide inducement. Its price on and afler 
March 15 will, therefore, be $1 a year with- 
out premium. 

About six weeks remain in which the old 
premiums may be secured, and in which the 
old clubbing rates will continue in force. 
If you intend to do anything in that way 
you must do it now. The indi 

in the expeekincy of a reneteal by Uif »tib- 
aerib^ra next year at tJie oue flollnr rafJi. 

Those who begin to read TuE Jodrnal usually 
continue to read it, and upon that assumption 
we put the price down below the actual profit 

There never was a belter chance for the 
rising geucnition of penmen to secure this 
invaluable work, "Ames" Compendium of 
Practical and Oraamenlal Penmanship," 
than is presented by this offer. We suy 
"the rising generation," because all the 
wise heads of the fraternity have long ago 
provided themselves with the work which 
by the concensus of expert opinion is in- 
comparably the best in its line extant. No 
artist pretends to do wilhout it; no student 
or admirer of the beautiful and the practi- 
cal in pen-work can afford lo. Warmly 
recommended by the profession as a com- 
plete library of precept and exumple for the 
professional, the amateur, aspirant and stu- 

All this is said in no spirit of disparage- 
ment to The Journal's two or three bright 
conlemporariesin the field of penmanship, nil 
of which aredeserving of prosperity. They, 
however, do not represent so large an in- 
vestmenl of money in their prodoction, and 
are necessarily more c'rcum scribed in the 
extent and character of their work. 

The index to The Journal's volume just 
closed shows 384 principal articles, taking 
no account of nearly 2,000 unbended arti- 
cles published in the way of notes. Yet in 
the work of editing, the search for each sep- 
arate note requires, on an average, at least 
as much time as a writer of fair facility 
would bestow upon a half-column article on 
a given subject. Prof. Kelley, for instance, 
in compiling liis monthly items on educa- 
tion, humor, etc. , is obliged to read carefully 
from one hundred to two hundred different 
publications a month— in itself a work of 
several days. 

Neither does the index to The Journal 
convey an idea of a large number of articles 
comprised under certain general headings. 

Looking down the index further, we find 
that 174 separate engravingsare annotated by 
title. This is vastly more than thecombincd 
product of all other penman's papers, 

offered are greater than we shall again 
mtke. The offers made last month (you 
want to read them carefully) are continued 
to March 15. Here they are : 

To every prescut subscriber for 
The Journal who shall send us three 
new subscriptions before March 15, 1888, 
and three dollars lo pay for the same, 
we will mail The Journal for the year 
1888, wiih premium free. 

7'hcTC is probably no person among The 
Jodrnal's tens of thousands of subscribers 
who could not, with scarcely any exertion, 
secure tlio three subscriptions. 

To any present subseriber who shall 
send six new subscriptions before March 
15, and |6 to pay for the same, we 
will mail The Journ.vl for two years 
Iree. or send the extra s ibscription to any 
address indicated. 

For ten new subicriplions sent before 
March 15 by a present subscriber, we will 
send The Jouunal free for lour years, 
or four subscriptions for one year, or 

For ten new subscriptions we offer a 
copy of our superb Compendium, ttee, 
the price of which is five dollars. 

This M the best offer we. hace etxr made, 
Uaving us absolutely no margin of profit sate 

For twenty or more subscriptions we will 
allow a cash discount of twenty-five 
cents each, which may be deducted by the 
agent when remitting. 

In all the above, offers ike subscription in- 
cludes choice of the regular premiums. The 
offers close March 15. They are the best 
eecr made, anrf probably that ever will be 

Legibility vs. Speed. 

In another column appears an article 
on the Relative Importance of Le,i;i- 
bility and Movement in Writing, by Mr. 
Fox, of this city, to which we invile the 
special attention of our readers. 

Without committing ourselves to all the 
statements therein made, we wish to say 
that in many respects we accord with Mr. 
Pox. We believe that first and piimmount 
in writing is legibility. It is more essential 
that a man be able lo walk than thnt be 
should have speedy locomotion. Speed is 
very desirable, both in locomotion and 
wriring. For many persons speed of writ- 
ing is of very little consequence compared 
with style and legibility. Indeed more per- 
sons to-day hold lucrative positions as 
clerks, copyists, engrossers, and even teach- 
ers, from the extremeneatnessand legibility 
of their writing than its speed. In "early 
all cases legibility will be an acceptable ex- 
cuse for lack of speed, but who would par- 

It] illegible scroll on the ground of 
1 ' Many of our eutbusiastic worsbip- 
ii i^c shrine of " movemenl " would do 
iM note the fact ihat celerity of »clion, 
:]\iT of mind, body or limbs, is u catu- 
ml inherited ^ft, and that a person 
I itiitionally slow of mind or 'motion 
rjot vie with one who is constitutionnlly 

I k, nor can any amount of training avail 
ring equality, for Irainiog advances him 

II is already quick in the same degree 
r il does be that Is flow. 

I Ifrity of mind isaticnded with exactly 
(irrt-t*ponding degree of celerity of phy- 
il action, hence a slow person can no 
I.- write rapidly than he could run 
[liiiik rapidly. 

I fdllowa. then, as a fact that movement 
\riling is relative. Drill may helpaslow 

II to move faster, as it does the (juick 
Imt the slow one remains relatively 

\ hence the absurdity of teachers setting 
iniierical standard of motion, that is, a 
I II number of strokes per minute for a 
I illiineous class of pupils. It is true lie 

extreme advocates of movement are being 
run out of the true race on a hobby. Move- 
ment must follow not precede form. Action 
of tiogers must follow action of mind. By 
this we do not mean that a pupil is to go 
through the whole process of mastering 
form before practicing movement, but that 
forms are to be studied and letters analyzed 
and some ideal established in the mind of 
the pupil before he is pushed to an extreme 
of speed. If it is to be better form and less 
speed, or better speed and less form, we 
choose the former. 

Editorial Comment. 

Our winged messenger on the accom- 
panying page bears The Journal's best 
wishes of Joy, Peace, Prosperity to each in- 
dividual member of its big household. And 
it seems entirely apropos that a flourished 
messenger should convey greetings toa nour- 
ishing constituency. 


I very rash undcrtnkii 

illustrations, T/ir Penmon seems to be 
having due prosperity and to be enjoying 
itself generally- Editor Scarborough con- 
tinues to make things interesting in OaikdVit 
Magazine. Editor Scarborough does not 
propose to have any dyspeptic correspond- 
ents treading on his toes, as may be seen by 
reference to his last number. These dyspep- 
tic correspondents, by the way, have a most 
unenviable manner of bobbing up when 
least expected, aud they are the hardest per- 
sons in the world to sit down on. r/rfc com- 
munication elsewhere in this issue. 

The Kino Club comes this month from 
C. A. French, of Bnston, aud numbers 
forty-four subscribers. Mr. French is one 
of The Journal's most appreciative friends, 
a month rarely passing without his contrib- 
uting a number of new subscribers to its 
lists. That is the kind of friends upon 
which good papers are built. W. C. Ishell, 
Terre Haute, Ind., sends the Queen Club, 
numbering thirty six, with W. S. Cham- 
berlain, Wilkesbarre, Pa , only a nose behind 


[n:iy produce an apparent equality in the 
priiitice by holding back the fast and spur- 
riiiL' up the slow to a common medium, but 
in I his the one suffers from contraction and 
tlir iither from extension. Again, many 
pupils from circumstances beyond their 
control, have but a brief period of school- 
ing, insulhcient to acquire both legibility 
and speed. In bur business -olleges, where 
mo5t of the pupils have already enjoyed the 
advimtages of a common school, and often 
high school education, and who now have 
the assistance of skilled pr.ifessional teachers 
of writing, it becomes proper that special, 
and sometimes exclusive, attention be given 
to movement, but it should be borne in 
mind that the vast majority of those who 
learu lo write do so in the public si-houls of 
rural towns, where the employment of a 
strictly professional teacher of writing is 
utliTly out of the question, and whose occu- 
piitioncills for a very limited practice in 
writing; to such legibility is of paramount 
importance. We have ever been an earnest 
advocate of free movement in writing, and 
shall ever continue to be such, but in view 
of the fact that it is chiefly to the specialist 
ill "filing, either as a clerk, accountant or 
. Ml iispondent. in the urgency of business, 
u lio requires lo writewith extreme rapidity, 
while to the vast majority of writers speed 
is of very little consideration compared with 
legibility, we repeat, first legibiliiy, then 

We can but believe that many of the 

ing penmanship opinion on penmanship 
superiority, and candor compels us to say 
that it wasn't successful. So many penmen 
who received our summons begged to be 
excused (mostly on grounds of delicacy) 
that we feel constrained lo extend the in- 
dulgence to the few who were moved to 

When the Greek allies had scattered and 
destroyed the great Persian fleet in the bat- 
tle of Salamis, all Athens put on the garb 
of jubilation and came out to greet the 
proud victors. In order lo bestow the 
glory in due proportion upon the various 
Greek commanders, each of Ihem was re- 
quested to make a list of those who tuok 
part in the fighting, giving the names prece 
dence according to respective merits. Brave 
men and true, each list-maker put his own 
name at the head, excepting Themistoclcs, 
whose name was second on all the lists save 
his own. That, however, was several years 
ago. and has nothing at all to do with the 
case in point, except lo illustrate the perils 
of list making. 

Tnp. OFFER of 77(f Opc£ and The Jotto- 
NAL for ^1 a year is confined to new sub- 

of The 'Western 
Penman is the best we have seen in a long 
time. It is extremely creditable in point of 

with thirty-four. Each of these gentle 
knows a good thing when he sees it. and has 
enough consideration for bis friends to let 
them into the secret. II, C. Spencer, of the 
Spencerian Business College. Washington, 
D C, sends aclul) of thirly subscribers, and 
J. W. Welioit. Grand Rapids. Mich., twen- 
ty-five. Clubs of seventeeD come from E. 
L. Burnelt. SloweUs B. & S. Business Col- 
lege. Providence, R. I., and James W. 
Yerex, La Grange. N. C. C. F. Elliott. 
Streator. Ill , sends fourteen subscriptions; 
.1. B. Moore. N. W. Business Cdlege. Stan 
berry. Mo. . thirteen ; Jacob Bos«, Aurora. 
III., ten ; E. E. Rondebush, Topeka. Kan., 
Businefs College, nine, with various clubs of 
eight aud less. 

In its IS8DE of November last, on page 
159. The Journal printed a bird flourish 
purporting to have been executed by R. B. 
Pickens, of Mooresville. Tenu. The copy 
was received from Mr. Pickens himself. 
After the flourish had been put in print we 
received a letter from Mr. C. N. Crandle. 
Dixon. III., claiming the authorship of 
the production in question, and alleging 
llmt it had been stolen by Mr. Pickens 
from his scrap-book, and palmed off for his 
own work. Mr. Crandle has had an oppor- 
tunity lo examine the original from which 
the cut WHS made and positively identifies it 
as his own work. Before seeing the ori- 
ginal, however, he described the copy in 
sueh a way as to satisfy us entirely that his 

claims were true. We arc very sorry to be 
compelled to show up R. B. Pickens in the 
unenviable light of a forger and a fraud. 
The facts, however, seem to warrant il, and 
our duty lo our readers and to the profession 
justifies this strong language, as applied to 
one who seeks to impose on them in this 
gross manner. If the young man has any- 
thing to say in his defence we will give him 
the opportunity. 

Pen and Paper. 

Handwriting is as much an expression of 
character as dress or speech. 

The c'lt, the color and the arrangement 
of the dress indicate the position, taste and 
inclination of the wearer ; the tone of voice, 
the pronounciation and the thought ex- 
pressed in speech is a complete index to the 
individual who holds your attention, and 
not less certainly does the color of ink used, 
the shape and quality of paper and the 
fashioning of characters in a written com- 
munication tell the story of the personality 
of the inditer. 

To be sure, we are governed or fashioned 
in each by certain arbitrary rules peculiar to 
the time and place, but it is in the adapta- 
tion of these mandates that the individual 
crops out. 

At one time no dress was complete with- 
out a trail, and it was iu its management 
that a woman's grace or awkwardness was 

It was the individual surviving under 
herculean ditficulties that led a certain 
young man to be spoken of lately as "a 
sensible, respectable dude." 

The soft tones and smooth, grammatical 
sentences of educated persons are noticeable 
even when marred by the drawling tones 
esthetic culture gives or the twang the 
Yankee atmosphere imparts. 

Thus does an unobtrusive color of ink, 
heavy, plain paper and neatness of the sheet 
indicate the lady or gcnllenian, notwith- 
standing the style of handwriting in vogue. 

Fifty years ago the very delicate, very 
regular, very slanting characters of the 
Italian style of handwritipg was in use. 
This, while lacking in character, possessed 
the one recommendation of legibility. 

Then came in the English style, very 
square, very imposing, stately as Britannia 
herself, but wholly illegible. 

At this time we have in use generally a 
happy combination of both, and perhaps at 
no former time bus more importance been 
attached to letter writing than at present. 

Business men consider it a most essential 
dignity to maintain, and their handsomely 
engraved letter-beads and carefully dictated 
and neat type-written mail are carefully 
considered iniJications of their business 
It was formerly believed that illegibility 
and haste indicated enterprise and prompt- 
ness ; but. while they do not entirely aban- 
don money saving and time saving, they now 
consider beauty saving as well. 

In letter writing it is demonstrated that it 
i9 practicable to combine usefulness and 

Ladies of leisure can have no excuse for 
such an omission, which in them would be 
at once unladylike and discourteous. 

They are aided in this work by the per- 
fect pens, perfect paper and perfect ink of 
the day. 

Steel pens are most generally used in pre- 
ference to the more expensive gold ones, at 
one time considered indispensable. 

The variety and excellence of paper is un- 
limited for ladies' use. but the heavy, cream- 
laid, moderate sized sheet, unruled, is con- 
sidered in most elegant taste. 

The sheet may be simply ornamented by 
the address of the writer, the street and 
number, or, if suburban, the name, as 
" Rosebush Villa," in plain, handsome en- 
graving We learn that Mrs. Cleveland 
uses stationary adorned with her monogram 
in heraldic fashion, and the motto. " Where 
bees are there is honey," and perhaps this 
will lead to innovations. 

The use of sealing wax. recently intro- 
duced, met with a hearty reception at fir>t. 
but lately we ace but little of its use. The 
convenient self sealing envelopes, for which 
wax seals are superfluous, are too ueal and 
expedient to be immediately superseded. 

i Vl f VK 1 JOUKN.Vl. 

Quantity— Quality. 

A word or two in reference to a genera) 
miaapprehension exiting amongst our self- 
iityled professors of penmanship, concern- 
ing tbc rate of speed and tbc necessary 
amount of strokes or letters to be made [kt 
miniile, I think will uut be amiss. 

teaching of speed in penmanship is evident, 
as that is not the goal to be attained, but 

It may be argued that perfection is the 
most dilficult and the least attainable, as 
results have shown. Nevertheless, if per- 
' fection be so difficult to attain, let it at least 
be the goal toward* which we should aim. 
Tbeu if the sought-for result be attained, 
so much the greater will be our satisfaction 
in having accomplished that for which we 
airovc. If perfection iu form and move- 

be understood (bat I am in favorof a legiti- 
mate or limited use of speed, a speed which 
bus for its object the attainment of good 
movement and stoadiness of stroke ; but 
not a speed which has for its object quan- 
' Speed in penmanship sbould be regulated 
accordingly ; i'. e . limited to a certain pace 
suited to the perion -writing, as the rate of 
speed must necessarily differ with different 
individuals. The powers of endurance in 
individuals are greater or lesser in their re- 

Movement ExercifleB.~Fhoto-EnKraved fi 

Presented In Conneotio] 

The question before us, which to my mind 
seems to be one of great importance, espe- 
cially 10 pupils, involves a grave and signi- 
ficant fact, that in peumanship only, such 
great stress seems to be placed on the term 

The "Professor" proceeds in his course 
of inairuction to impart to bis pupils the 
necessary importance of movement, by 
dashing off from hia skilled and practiced 
pen a lot of strokes, letters or combinations 
with a surprising degree of grace and ease, 
to the amaziment of his novices. 

ent cotpbiiitd. be so difficult to attain, why 
.crilice form by advocating speed to attain 

Grace, delicacy and harmony, so inde- 
scribable, and yet so manifest. Are these 
three sterling qualities compatible and in 
unison with the speed method ? 

A few comparisons to show the prepos- 
terousness of the speed advocacy I believe 
will strengthen my argument. Imagine a 
Mcissouier turning out so many yards of 
ciinvas in so many minutes; an engrnver 
endeavoring to make so many lines or stip- 

spective actions, and a strain to be placed 
on any of the powers must be regulated ac- 
cording to the endurance of the powers to 
be used. But does the professor who 
places a copy before bis pupils and requires 
a certain rate of speed for their execution, 
look or know who his pupils are? The 
pupil may be a grown man, a young lady, a 
boy, or even a child ; is it not ridiculous to 
ask the same rate of speed from all ? 
Shouldn't the professor make allowances as 
to whom he has for a pupil and whether 
the pupil be experienced or still a novice V 

The copies being compltted, be (" Pro- 
fessor ") next orders bis pupils to practice 
wiih the admonition that 00, 70, 80, 100 or 
300 per minute are necessary ; for, sbould 
he fail to grind out the required number of 
strokes iu the allotted time, he fails in at- 
taining the required result in that lesson, 
because he was told to turn oui so many 
strokes in so many minutes. 

Note the inconsistency in this method of 
leaching for, what is the pupil practicing 
to attain ? Is it a high rate of locomojive 
speed to at'aiu quantity, or is it to attain a 
high degree of perfection in quality, irres- 
pective of speed, which as a factor in exccu 
Hon cannot be governed with any regularity, 
aa speed in writing is an unknown and inde 
terminable quantity depending mainly on 
tbe person writing ; whereas, quaiiiy in 
writing is a known quantity, that being 
perfection. Therefore the absurdity of the 

pies per minute ; the crayon-artist trying to 
cover with bis stomp so much paper per 
minute; the designer originating so many 
ideas per minute ; or a Longfellow so many 
fict of verse per minute. Do any of the 
al)ove-namcd vocations derive any of their 
beauty through speed? If not. why place 
such great stress in requiring a certain 
quantity of work to be executed in a cer- 
tain length of time, when quantity is not 
the result sought. 

Throughout this discussion I have used 
the term speed for quantity, speed being 
the main factor in producing quantity ; and 
tbe term perfection for quality, perfection 
being the highest degree of quality attain- 
able. I wish not to be misunderstood as 
advocating the finger movement, as the 
constant practice of the same is bound to 
result in a slow, cramped and drawn like 
mode of cbirography ; but, I do wish it to 

The absurdity in the lessons illustrated by 
photo-engraved copies with printed inslruc 
tionsas taught by some of our professor^ 
through the different penmanship journals, 
is clearly at its height, when they ask all 
the readers to practice the lesson illustrated, 
and to use a certain rale of speed prescribed 
by the professor in his printed instructions, 
The professor seems to forget or to disre- 
gard the fact that his illustrated lesson 
comes before thousands of people both 
young and old, experienced and inexpe- 
rienced, and some more or less bis peers with 
the pen. Can any teacher whose sanity is 

I unquestionable ask the same rate of speed 
from the Ihousaodsof different persons who 

, have more or less muscular development, 
more or less endurance, more or less e.\pe- 

j rience, or niore or less aptness ? Would it 

I not be better for tbe professor to place 
before his pupils bis best copies, and ask 
from bis pupils their best work irrespec- 
tive of quantity ? 


At this point in tbe course we will give 
a few lessons in rapid writing, practical for 
business purposes, and commence in this 
number with a lesson on movement. 

Tbe first hand is in tbe act of starting an 
inverted oval exercise, and the second one 
has completed the left curve to the top. 
Notice that tbe position of the fingers and 
hand is the same in the second as in the 
first drawing, and that the line has been 
made by pushing tbe arm forward and out 
of the sleeve, sliding on the nails and sides 
of the third and fourth fingers folded under 
the hand. The rii^bt curve or downward 
stroke to complete the oval is made by 
drawing the arm back into the sleeve, not 
allowing the slightest movement in the 
joints of tbe thumb and fingers, and being 
sure that the sleeve does not slide ou tbe 
table. This is tbe forearm movement and 
the movement with which all these exer- 
cises were made. In stems and loops a 
slight movement of the thumb and finger 
joints maybe used at tbe same time that 
the arm is being pushed forward or drawn 
back into the sleeve, which is the combined 
movement, This movement of the fingers 
must not retard the free movement of the 

Hake the exercises on unruled paper, 
using no guide excepting the edge of a 
blotter on which the hand slides. The rea- 
son for asking you to write without lines 
is that nothing may take the attention from 
the movement. These instructions you 
will understand are for learners. When 
the movement is mastered then all exer- 
cises should be made to a base-line, and 
great care should be taken to follow it. In 
making tbe connecting line to a ( we usual- 
ly lift the pen from the paper about half a 
space from tbe top. Give each of these ex- 
ercises all the practice you can between this 
and the next lesson. Do not slight one of 
them. They arc all worlhy of your atten- 

Lessons on Movement Exer- 

In tbe last lesson I gave a series of light 
oval exercises. This lesson is devoted to 
shaded exercises. Each of these two kinds 
of exercises is valuable to the learner, the 
light to develop an easy, delicate touch, ll'e 
shaded to develop strength and confidence. 
The learnermust not get tired of these exer- 
cises, for they are the mainsprings of good 
business penmanship. The arrows indicate 
tbe direction of tbe motion. These exercises 
should be practiced with a rapid, vigorous 
muscular movement. From 150 to 20u 
ovals per minute is the proper speed. 

The Office. 

Our neighbor, The Office, wise beyond its 
day and generation, has become the olHcial 
exponent of Mr. Sprague's universal lan- 
guage, yclept ' ' Volapllk," designed to 
afford ready and philosophic means of com- 
munication between educatid people of ail 
nations. A " Hand Book of Volapllk ■' has 
just come from The Office press. It is a neat 
volume of 128 pages, settingforlh the mean- 
ing and uses of the new language, with a 
grammatical exposition of its structure 
The price of the work is |1. The OJiee 
stays right up to high water mark, and we 
are more than pleased to note the abundant 
evidences of its prosperity. The price of 
the paper is fl a year. By special arrange- 
ment with the publishers we are able to offer 
for a limited time to every new subscriber 
to The J0DRK4L. both The Office and Tnt 
.lotniNAL one year for the subscription price 
to either publication — $1, or to any one re- 
newing their subscription and remittirg 
$1.50 we will include The Office for one 

This is worth your consideration. 


The dear mtl<> laddie • hi* tiny hftndB 
Wt"*- «h«pped and n-d wllh cold. 

Diit Ihi?y rlfthtly daaped a piece of loe 
Almost t«o big tJ> hold. 

Far down In the depths of lU orysial heart 

Sourlot, and gold, and green. 

How hl8 blue eyes shone, and his eager face 

V,-\th y>Y w&H ai\ Bglovr '. 
Jb. mninnia ■" he cried, " Just see : I've found 

A piece of frozen rainbow." 
-JAzxie if. UmlUy. in ChrUtma* XHdt Aieakf. 

In Reference to Handwriting. 

Thequestianing of expprla on bandwril- 
Ing hy lawyers was one of the iolerestiDg 
incideuts in tbe Circuit Court one day this 
week. Somt; of the questions asked and 
pDBwered were: " Wbethera mau's writing 
reflex of his nervous condition ?" 
lellier a drunken man writes bis sigua- 
liJTerenttbanwben sober?' " Whelbcr 
&akcs a difference if tbe writer bas an 
^rcoat on 1" One of tlie witnesses said 
n's signature had a ceriaiu expres- 
[6ti, and like a man's face could lie recog- 
ed whctlier druik or sober, and that a 
iii'in's fiice 18 not jud2:ed by any single fea- 
iiirc. bis nose or the color of bis eyes, but is 
liken as a wbole. — KitifjHfin. N. T.. Daily 

Complimentary Closing. 

Intcr^nthig Statistlc§ of tlie Forms of End- 

I examined tbree hundred of my old lel- 
itTS, a buodred and fifty purely business 
tellers, and iin equal number of a aiiscel- 
laneous nature from friends and acquain- 
tauces. none from relatives, and nil from 
different persons. Here are the alatislics : 
nii/>. m/>c. 

\.Ty Truly Yn us , 17 13 

V.iiirs Very Truly 10 10 



ours FraturniUly ■ 

uiirsCordintly . 

ery Stncorely 

i Itli Sinooro llegu-d. 
..iir Obedient Servinc 





ocy f or bad writing. As fni .1- -iiniliriiy 
goes. " Yours" is infinitely preferable, and, 
indeed, is the best way to say something 
without meaning anything— best because 
tbe shorter the useless formula the better.— 
Robert Luce in The Writer. 

lost Truly Yonts 1 

One notal)le fcaiure of this table is tbe 
i;ircity of the signatures so well-nigh uni- 
irsal a renlury ago, such aa " Your Obe- 
liiul Servani," of which I found but two 
usfincts in three hundred letiers. " Your 
lumble Servant " seems to have departed 
ills life. Can ibis be due to ibe disUiste 
\iiiericans have for even tbe semblance of 
< Tvilily ? 

■'Yours Truly," trite, commonplace, as 
Ii void of meiiniug as two words can be, yet 
mills tbe lead in favor, to an extent not to 
II' wondered at in business letters, bui s-ime- 
liing surprising in letters of friendship. 

■ Very Kespectfully " and " Yours Kespect- 
'ully"are suilablc when Ihe person to re- 
■eive tbe leller is much older than the 
iruder or by reiisou of bis position deserves 
<niic marked expression of deference, but 
lie phrases are too often used without re- 
gard to their significance. 

" Yours, etc.," seems a half-beartcd, lazy 
■>in of signature ; a zig-zag line would mean 
IS much and be easier to make. It Jiii-'s not 
■v.n the slight merit of "In Ilasle" or 

■ Hastily," which aX least serve as an apol- 

Mistakes at the Post Office. 

■'It would probably astonish you." re- 
marked a clerk in the granite building on 
Devonshire Street, to a reporter, "to bce 
tbe large number and kind of mistakes 
made by the public when doing business 
with the post office. Every evening letiers 
misdirected or without postage stamps at- 

ing the day slopped. It could nol be done, 
I told her. because the mail for the place 
she mentioned had closed and was gone. It 
seems that she bad recently married, with- 
out her narents" knowledtje. and during the 
absence of her husband from town on busi- 
ness bad written him a letter, and also one 
to her paternal parent. She placed tbcm in 
envelopes, sealed and posted them Tbe 
same day, some hours after, she Ihongbt 
that she bad placed her husband's letter in 
her father's envelope, and vice versa ; hence 
the tears. It is not an unudual thing fc<r 
a man to throw in a checkbook or some 
valuable papers with his letters, and does 
not discover his loss for some lime. It is 
interesting to observe tbe perplexed and 
anxious look upon his face as be makes in- 

It is hard to tell wberher or not they will be 
a success. If they contain money oranylhing 
valuable they can be easily opened at the sides 
by a dishonest clerk and the contents ex- 
tracted without apparently injuring tbe 
cover. The only advantage they have over 
ft postal card is the contents are not kuowu 
to everybody who bandies them." 

" How is the special delivery business ai 
this office in number of letters delivered ?" 
was propounded by tbe reporter. 

" Since tbe introduction of that fystc m it 
has shown a steady falling off. but it will 
probably boomupouOctoberlst next, when 
all kinds of matter, if tbe usual stamp is 
affixed, will come under ihe rule. At pres- 
ent only first-class mail matter is delivered 
by special delivery." 


^ y / 


tacbed are thrown through the orifices in 
tbe panels. It seems that when some per- 
sons enters the post oftice they are bewil- 
dered, and suffer a partial eclipse of their 
senses, and do thiugs that they would not 
do in other places. Letters innumerable, 
from some of the largest business bouses in 
this city, are received here without the 
necessary postage affixed. This shows the 
mistake is to be attributed to carelessness, 
not to ignorance." 

"What is done with such letters?" 
queried the reporter. 

'■ The senders, if their card is printed or 
written on the letters, are noiified ; other- 
wise the matter is sent to the dead letter 
ollice at Washington to be disposed of 

" I have no doubt you witness many inci- 
dents humorous as well as pathetic, do jou 
not ?" observed tbe reporter. 

" Yes. the post office is a great plare to 
study human nature; you come in contact 
with all sorts of characters. Only the other 
evening a young woman, crying piteously, 
approached the window, and. in answer to 
an interrogati.ry as lo the nature of her 
business, replied that she would like to 
have two letters that she had posted dur- 

quires for bis lost property, and tbe re- 
lieved and pleased expression that suc- 
ceeds it as he gains possession of tbe lost 

"Then," resumed tbe speaker, after a 
sho't pause, "there are some persons who 
neatly and firmly place a stamp upon a let- 
ter and then throw it in, utterly devoid of 
direction. Tbegreat army of phoneticsptll- 
ers come lo tbe front and creale havoc with 
such names as Philadelphia. Jamaica Plain, 
etc . and make of tbe poetical Indian names 
something terrible and hardly recognizable. 
Fertile ingenuity has a great tield to operate 
upon when superscribing tbe address. Some 
direclious are gotten up in the form of 
rebuses and enigmas. Milk Street is some- 
times called street of the lacteal fluid, whi'e 
Cross. Temple. Franklin and other .streets 
are easily represented." 

"IIow does the new envelope, the flap- 
covered postal curd, or whatever it is seem 
to take with the public." asked tbe re- 

" It is too early yet to say whether they 
will be successful or not. The majority of 
the uses of this latest idea show a lament- 
atile ignorance in folding it. They are fidded 
in shapes never designed by the 

Tlie reporter was shown a collection of 
curious addresses copied by this clerk into 
a book. Some were very remarkable. One 
was addressed like the following : 

HEELED. 25c.: soled, 75c. 

Dover Street. Uoston. Mass. 

This letter was delivered to a shoemaker 
on Dover Street who had over bis shop 
door a sign with the above legend upon it, 

—The great pyramid bas 85,000,000 cubic 
feet, the great wall of China 6,350.000,000 
cubic feet. An engineer in Seward's parly 
there some years ago gave it as his opinion 
Ibut thecost of this wall, figuring lahorat tbe 
same rate, would more than equal that of all 
tbe 100,000 miles of railroad in the United 

— Tbe public land is not all gone yet. 
There are still 9,000.000 acres in Colurndo. 
12.000.000 in Arizona. 30.000.000 in Cali- 
fornia. 49,000,000 in Dakota, 7.000,000 in 
Florida. 44,000,000 in Idaho. 7.000.000 in 
Minnesota, H.OOO.OCO in I'lab. ^JO.OfO.OCO 
in Washington, and millions of acres in 
other States and Terriioriea. while Alaska 
has fertile fields that have hardly betu 

Our Dyspeptic Correspondent 
Still on Deck, but Sobered. 

To (hr J'Altl'fr Of Ihr Pr/imijuM Arljonrnal. 
.Sir:— A ropy uf (!a*h-fU* .\fagminr bun 
been plactd in my bonds, from wbicb I 
(liscover that the editor is quite moved con- 
cerning my bints on the proper use of Eng- 
lish. I cannot see why be should assume 
the championship for that small class of 
transgressors whom 1 desired to benefit. 
Siiffly he has nothing in common wilb 
tbem. and besides, as a public instruclor 
and a good penman, be ought to join me in 
putting down an evil, if it be an evil. But 
possibly it is not. Possibly I am wron^. 
afier all. and the editor is right. 

I don't quite like bis deaignaliou of my 
article as "putrid gusb of a green eyed 
grumbler." There is an alliterative beauty 
about it, to be sure, as there is about most 
'that tbia eminent litUratrur gets off, but it 
isn't true. In the first place my gnsb was 
not " putrid," and then, I am not 
" green-eyed." I am simply an honest del- 
vcr for the true and beautiful in liicrature 
and art. I may be wholly in fault as to my 
ideals, but I have never intended to blow 
my " putrid breath in tlie public's face," 
nor to " point with loathsome finger to the 
freckles on another ; " nor am I "a double- 
tongued leper,'* that "spreads fetid satire 
like a sick whale" whenever I see "an 
ancient idea in a modern word-cloak." I 
may have " an over-scrupulous mind," but 
I am not all these bad things. I confess I 
have been studying different models from 
those presented in Qankdl, as above indi- 
cated, hut 1 may have gone wrong. I am 
sorry to have left "MeGuffey^s First 
Header " out of my early and lute training, 
nnd I may have suffered from a too great 
familiarity with the more crisp nnd senten- 
tious English authors. I am sorry if I have 
made a mistake, and am willing to be 
instructed, even by Bill Nye and bis some- 
what attenuated followers. 

I used to think that General Grant's im- 
mortal sentence; "I propose to move imme- 
diiitely upon your works." could not be 
improved upon ; but I see now bow mis- 
taken I have been. I am afraid tlie General 
bad too much to do with McGuffey's First 
Reader when a boy. See what an opportu- 
nity was lost. Wilb a knowledge of the 
new style fostered by the penman's papers, 
be could have said : 

" If, in the brief space of twenty- 
flve consecutive advances of the minute 
band of my gold -encased chronometer, 
you do not seek to penetrate the azure 
depths of the arched canopy with beart- 
freigbted petitions for heavenly guidance 
towards a peaceful surrender, I i>ropose to 
project upon the tympanum of yourauricu- 
lar appendage the detonating reverberations 
of the loud-belcbing death-dealers of grim- 
visaged war, and to bustle you out of your 
barricaded strongholds like a bevy of 
frowzle-beaded school urchins, panting to 
escape the venomous fangs of a superannu- 
ated and carniverous hull dog." 

And then, again: " 1 will fight it out on 
this line if it takes all summer." How 
much better bad he said, in the modern 
style : 

" Whatever mental hallucinations may 
seize upon and overpower the weakly-dis 
tilled essence of intellectual haberdashery 
that mciindcrs through Ibe brnin-cells of 
the uninteresting military neophyte, I pro- 
pose, as the unapproachable commander of 
the armies,- to follow the sublime concep- 
tions of my own indomitable event per- 
suader, and embellish the gory annals of 
bistorv with the ruddy picture of ensan- 
guined buttle, waged for conquest nod glory 
and the exalloilon of the stripes and stars, 
along the devious ways of the trackless 
wilderness, even should the hazardous ad- 
ventures prolong its devastating ravages 
into the coming summer months, and bring 
us. with our tjisk yet unfulfllled. into the 
and hazy atmosphere of cnpurplcd 

General Grant could flgbt, but it is quite 

sublime heights reached by the inksliugt 
of the boundless West, but I withdraw my 
protest. Let 'em rip. 
One Who Did Scfpeh, Bdt Don't Now. 

Writing is a luxury mth Anus' Btst Pc 


— ToB JornKAi. is pstned to learn of the de«th of 
Ur. C. K. Carliart, lute of ibe Arm of Carnell ft 
Csrhart, proprietors of tlie Albaay Itu^lness Cot- 
lege. Mr. Carharl'a deatti occurred very unex- 
pectedly, at bis bome. on Koremhcr 28. The 
deoeasiHl wuv In the prime and vieor of roung 
maDbood, and WM Justly considered one of ibi- 
most BOL'ompllBbed and proml^ine members of the 
busluo^B cullege fraternity. Tbe Albany Ciille^e 
will hereafter be conducted by the survlTing part- 
ner, Mr. J. K. Cdrnell. who boa taken po^ession of 
elaborate new quarters in College I'laoe. 

— E. M. Chartier, the well-known penman and 
teacher has opened a commercial sctiool at Paris. 
Tex .known aslbeTexaiBufinesj College. Short- 
band uud penmanship are made specialties in this 
Insittutlon. which ought to lluuriBb with such an 


— U'. L Lonit, a very accomplished young pen- 
man, as nttcated by various plain and ornamental 
speulmens submitted to us, U open to an engage- 
mfiit as teacher, lie is an oW pupil of Profeasors 
Mu sriman and Schofield, and his address is 
Quincy, III. 

—A very beautiful souvenir announcement and 
calender comes to us from TAif Touth'a Companion. 
Always bright, entertaining and instructive. T/ie 
Companion for the coming year offers atttactiuos 
superior to those ever before set forth by a periodi- 
cal for young people. 

—The daily papers of New York City a short 
time since contained accounts of an appeal for aid 
to Mayor Hewitt, by Oliver B. Ooldsmitb, the 
veteran penman, who, in the seventy-third year nf 
his age, finds himself In very straightened ciroum- 

—The Little Jtock, Ark,, Commercial College has 
secured the services of J. A. Willis, of New York 
Stale, as a member of its faculty. Mr. Willis Is 
higblyni Miiiiiii'ii.l.'d imMi as an artist and teaoUer 

— \Vi- till mil, ii t.. .nlmire In the matter and 

metliiii.l ■■! iIm' ,1111 1 liitalogue issued by the 

Liui'uln l.iiMiir-.- ...i|, ■;;,■, rjneoln, Neb.,of whtoh 
those veUMaji [leiLLiieu itiid teachera, D. R. Lllli- 
bridgc and F. F. Itoose, are proprietors and prinoi- 

—Messrs. S. A. D. Hahn and G. W. Walters have 
Joined forces and are oondiioting a nommeroial 
school at Helena, Montana, known as the Montana 
Business College. Mr, Ilahn is an old band at the 
business and his reputation is of the best. Mr. 
Walters is a young roan, full of ^■igo^ and promise, 
and we have no doubt that the new institution 
will be a success. 

—A notab'e occasion was the annual reception 
and banquet of the association of graduates of 
the Spencertan Business College, Washington, 
J>. Cheld on Tuesday eveuinp. Dt'cember STth. 
An entertaining programme was carried out, 

—A very elegantly engraved Christmas card 
comes to us with iho compliments of I'rofessor 
Henry T. Looniis, spencerian Business College, 
Cleveland, O. A like memento with the compli- 
ments of the season comes from deary's Business 

—The Sacrauieuto, Cal.. Business College has 
added to its list of teachers Mr, J. Mort Smith, late 
of Pennsylvania, whose illustrated lesson on 
writing, printed in The Journal a short time 
slnci", will 1)6 readily recalled by its many readers, 

-Mr. T. P. Stowell, proprietor of the B. &, S, 
Business College, Providence, R. I., was presented 
by the pupils of that institution on Christmas with 
a very handsome pair of French bronzt- nianttil 
oruhmeuts. also a tine gold watch charm. Mr. 
Scott, the assistant principal, received a fine silver- 
mounied umbrella. All the other teachers wire 
the recipients of suitable presents. Mr. E. L. Bur- 
nett, of the Penmanship Department, being made 
happy with a diamond scarf-pin. 

mington. Del., also favors i._ ,.^- 

slgnsln bird flourishing. We have likewise speci- 
mens of credii able ' — ' - - - 

LaUrange, N. C, R. M. , ,„. ^..,,. „ 

and a brace of pariicularly fine speoimen's. < 

practioal writing comes from A. .1. Olson, Cum- 
oerlaud. Wis. S. W. Biggs. Cuba, Ohl-t, sutimit^ a 
pen drawing and fiouribh wnich snows some origi- 
nality of design. 

-Very handsomely written cards, capitals and 
copy lines are submitted by R. S. Collins, Knox- 

" '"'■"■■ ' "^ G. Christie. Poughkeepsie.N. Y.; 

jr. Ohio ; and Mrs. Helen M. Avery 

" , Washington. D. C, 

napproachab ' 

superb designs in colorj 

. Bixier. Wo 

y handsome ornamental ■ 

City Commercial College. Des M.tlnes, Iowa. 

—A photosraph of a very credluble piece of e 
grossing has been received from Coourod & Smit 
AtcbinaoQ, Kan.. Duslneas College. 

mrs' Best Pen hm already become a priiiu 
faroriU and is eagerly sought both for expert 
and practical buginets work. It w the best to 
be had. Price 35 cent^ a guartcr-grcm box. 

Western Penman's Association. 

la., Dec. 36-31, 1887. 

Monday afternoon found President Chap- 
man and a large number of the piofessiou on 
hand ready for the anticipated conventioD. 
At 7:30 p. M. the President called the mem- 
bers to order and the preliminary business 
was disposed of. 

Tuesday morning the enrollment was per- 
fected, showing a ^otal of nearly one bun- 
dred in attendance. The regular pro- 
gramme was then taken up, and a most inter- 
esting and instructive lesson given by Prof. 
I. W. Pierson, of Buriington. la. This les- 
son struck the keynote, and the convention 
entered upon its work with an enthusiasm 
exceeding that of any simMar meeting ever 
held. During the general discussions it was 
a common occurrence to have five or six 
asking for the Hoor. President Chapman 
was often placed in very trying positions, 
but his rulings gave perfect satisfaction. 
The balance of the programme was carried 
out for the day, and in the evening a most 
delightful entertainment was tendered the 
Association by Messrs. Goodyear & Palmer. 
The programme of the evening included an 
address of welcome by Mr. Brigham. editor 
of the Reptiblican, and a response by Mr. 
Chapman, I*resideut of the Convention. 
Both of these addresses were listened to with 
unabated interest, each receiving hearty ap- 
plause. The programme as outlined in the last 
issue of Tnii: ,Iouiinal, was carried out with 
a few minor changes. Harmony and enthu- 
siasm characterized the entire proceedings, 
and it is within bounds to say that a more 
successful penman's convention was never 
convened on this continent. 

Friday afternoon the election of officers 
resulted in the choice of C. C. Curtis, of 
Minneapolis. Minn., President; C, H. Peirce, 
of Keokuk, la,, Vice President ; A, N. Pal- 
mer. Cedar Rapids, la.. Secretary; D. W. 
Hoff, Des Moints, la.. Assistant Secretary ; 
G. R. Uathbun, Omaha, Neb., Treasurer. 
The Executive Committee consists of B. C. 
Woods, Davenport, la. ; C. N. Crandle, 
id W. J. Kinsley, Shenan- 

venport. la., with Mi 
Taking all things together, the 

Wood & Va: 

inual meeting of the Wi 
Association exceeded Ihat of the first, and 
everybody went away rejoicing and fully 
determined to attend next year and bring 

for press. It takes occasion, however, to 
congratulate the officersand members of the 
Association upon their very agreeable and 
successful meeting, and to commend in the 
most unreserved manner the important work 
they are doing. 

Souvenir of Barnes' Penman- 

The handsomest product of a press we have 
had the pleasure of seeing in a very long 
time comes to us in the shape of a Souvenir 
of Barnes' National System of Penmanship, 
it has fortv paces with a s\iperb cover em- 
bossed iiHlVrinii^-l in L'ilf. But the glory of 
the sniivMiM I- ii ii.M. \i ]i,.r'e are presented 
erignuL'ii . ■ iiniidations of the 

Barne:^ > I : n^liip by a number 

of Amurh V- I.m.Iih,^, [m uim-u. The list in- 
cludes such well kiH)wu professional experts 
as W. R. Glen, H. W. Flickinger, A. H. 
Hinman, D. B. Williams. W. W. Bennett. 
K. M. Huntsinger, C. V. Whitmnrsh. E. M. 
Zimmerman, B. H, Spencer, T. P. Bassett, 
M. B. Moore, E. R. Reeves. C. E. McKee, 
II. J. Putnam, R. S. Collins. II. J. William- 
son. E. L. Wiley, C. H. Havens. G. E. Net- 
tletun, A. P. Root, A. D. Skeels, E. B. Law- 
rence. D, A. Griffitts W. G. Christie, J. M. 
Harkins, M. J, Goldsmith, I. S Preston, H. 
U. Vincent, W. D. F. Brown, Joseph Foel- 
ler, .Jr., J. H, Elliott, W. J. Kinsley, H. C. 
Weidler, J. C. Kane, A. E. Peck, E. L. 
Ilall, C. M. Robinson and Fielding Scho- 
field, whose portrait and pen- work are 
shown in this issue of The Journal. Truly 
a bright galaxy of penmanship stars ! 

The leiier press of the souvenir is unex- 
cepiiiiuablc. and its method of presenting 
the claims of the system altogether admira- 
ble. In fact, the work may he called a 
stroke of genius on the part of its designer, 
Mr. J. Marshall Hawkes, who is at the head 
of this department in the great publishing 
house of A. S. Barnes & Co. The produc 
t ion of the souvenir in vol ves a cost of several 
thousand dollars. It is valuable as a speci- 
men book, and fortunate indeed the penman 
who shall secure a copy. 




speed l3 reiniii-ed." 

AwardecL the only Gold Uedal. 

The Hammond Typewriter Co,, 

75 and 77 Nassau St., N. Y. 


Five More Plates of 

Kibbe's Alphabets. 

Made with a bruad pointed pnn, eraflefal and 
easy to execute. Tho best style of lettcrinR known 
(or engrossing uamea on diploaias, cards, etc. 
No. Zi. Kounded tiotlilc. 

flowers. Klabnrate and suited U 
log. Two styles of flnisb stiown. 

No. 25. Artistto Kastlo. 
Easy to execute, rapid, and the most arllatlo 
effect in rustic lettering yet produced. Mimey re- 
turned to anyone who will say that tbIa plate is 
not worth the price uf the five. 

No. 20. Cameo. 

For neatness and artistio effect, combined with 
ea e and rapidity of eiecuiion. this aiphabpt le^dg 
the world. Count Ihls eicotistio If you like after 
having examined the letters. 

No. 27. Scrolling Letters. 
Two Styles of scrolls with appropriate lettering 
and ornamenta'ion. Very artistic, and if we mis- 
take not, will please admirers of pen-work. 
Siogle No. 10c. The five Nob. 25c. 

Instruction by Mail. 


nation of 
1 illustra- 

Writine. including all lett 

tiona. written for eiuli les^ton and 
the forearm movement and positioi 
tlon. will be sent for §2. 

A Course of Twelve Le*8oDB In Flourishing in 
eluding Principles, Birds, Eagle, Swan and i 


We are selling immense quantities of Oilllott's 
(XM E. F. Pens because they are the finet pioduct 
of the best Pen Makers iu the world, and give uni- 
versnl satiataction. One-fnurth gross 25c One 
gross, 85c. Two gross, SI W. Address, 


l-l' Utica, N. Y. 


/«« Information that msv be worth 
. , irs to yon. I have organized and taucht 

classes in peumantthlp In six states nearly forty 
- les averaelDK abo-'t fifty puplU. My last class 
irk In Nebraska gave me a net profit above all 
enses, of $110 in seventeen diiys. If you wish 
make the work a succcbs, write. Inclosing 

expenses, < 


a. C. CARVElt, Sioux 

Penman Sioux Falls' 1 

Ol^r^rjbuys a half-Interest in a well.est«b- 
**'^^*^li8hed BUSINESS COLLEQKina boom- 
ing cily of over one hundred thousand Inhabl. 


Commercial Law 

mes the standaitl, li Is plain, practical and just the hook for class Instruction in Business 
leges and Commercial Departments. A new edition la now ready for delivery. 

Sample Copies will be sent u. teachers on receipt of wholesale price. 50 Cent*. 
Addresf orders and correspondence. 


i CU« 




who read- 1 liU Ui s'-mWor Free Cln-ular 
B by M*ll In Automatic Penm»n«hlp. 
,„orf d fliws AuU.iiiHtic! Slm-ling Pens.*!- 
I MwjrU-d pacliagcs Automutio IdK Pww- 
wtlfal Speolmea* of Aatomatie Pen-work. 
A.'h. BAKBOUH. Tabor. Iowa. 

RANTED (mmedlat^If . leiiclier to Uki 

htrithrDetic.jrrammar. penmsn-.blpai 
' *11 lU lonnfl. Penmanehtp mua 
Address Commercial College, 

SHORT H A N D^y*5o^o';e»'^y^»°^fi5» 

CYCLOSTYLES. ^^'iJ.JJl^^'ii^rt/A' 
ALIGRAPHS, ^li^\ Jfe 'ma'3° 

I. r circ's. W. Q. CHAFFEE, Oswego. N.V. 

The Journal Teachers' Bureau. 

^3>0 You Wont a Teacher ? 

I>o You Wish Empluyment? 

Alt«iitlon is callod to the Jodrwal's Employ- 
ment Bureau for Tencbera of Penmanship and 
Commercial Brandies. The registration fee will 
' hwoafter he J^.'SOiincludln^ihecostof forwardlna: 
Vl»tt«"«) and will bt' charged alike to those seeking 
' teacbor:^ aiul po>itiiins. Tlie plan Is to keep a list 

use all applications for 

;/ ■■I'r^l In nllciu-Jes where 

nylng positions, and will now prosecute this 
,vilh BTeater vigor than ever, 
eare always enud teachers to be had and 
>ositions to be filled. What you want Is to 
|]i>w to pair the teacher and the place. The 
M, oanbelp you, and $2.50 pays the entire 


s strictly coDfideutial. 

rnrlij Ixiij gets the Hggtit pint 

By Ovr,Mlw IteTffiE Pi\DeE5> 


Eu){ro9.«tn2 Backhand Alphabet. 
EiampU'S of Card Wrltlnu. 
Silhouette Kuttile Alphabet. 
EuKrosslue Hand Alphabet. 
Oranlte Alnbabet. 
Gothic Alphabet. 
Rapid Muscular Writing Alphabet 
Rapid old English Text Alphabet. 
Rapid Working Alphabet. 
Setni Script Arpbabel. 

Alsnt'ltrtit styles of Borders. 
I.:itlU'>'. ■T I'tird Hand Alphabet. 
Kii)i.ii:v NctiiT Alphabet. 

t Alphabet 

Ujif 1 

Instructions Given in Penmanship. 

A thorough course of IS lessons In plain p« 
lanfibip will be given by mall lor S3.00 cash 
You can receive Just a« good ln*truction, ma 
i8t as rapid Improioment at your iimn*-* h* at 
istltute of Penmanship or Bu-ippi 

In the Unrtcd'siates for three 
charge. By taking this 

rales of tuition very 

■ ind complete as tt- 

lined anywhere el^ 

s thorough and complete as the 

^mali expense. Earh 

handsomely written 

teaches it A short, simple, practical method by 
B. C. ATKmSON, Principal of Sacremento Busl- 
Dflu College. Sacr«meDto, CaL By mail, 60 cents. 
Address as above. S-19 


. Dakin— I take great pleat^ 

a rapid growth I am, yours very truly. 

Under lila portrait is the way he writ 
the following Is the way he wrote bcl 

lotes, P.O. orUera, or reyi-Certd k-tteia und'ad- 

A. W. DAKIN, Penman, 

Syrjuuse, N. Y. 

For WS-SO I will send Vi sets of copies with 16 
:opies in a set, graded for the me of writing teach- 

Send I 

A. W. DAKIN, Penman, 

iq^O^\^ HEADY. 

Tlie Hand Book of V olapiik. 


Meniberof tbe Aciuleiny of Vol ipnk— President of tbc lusliliiU- of Accounts. 

One vol., I'inio, t'iS ftp. Heavy paper, bountl. Pricv, postage pahl, sfit. 


I of ' 

Mtber labor i 

has been spared, 
d of 

Thi8 work, in tbi- prcparat 
comprises : 

1. Aq introduction explaining tlie Pnrposei, Origin find History of Volnpilk 
tbe VolapUk movement. 

2. A grammatical exposition of Ibe structure of the language. 

3. The order or arrangement of words. 

4. The derivation of words, the selection of radica's and Ibe formation of ncv 
by composition, by prefixes and by suffixes. 

5. "Spodam ;" Commercial Correspondence. 
8. "Lilitdam;" Reading Lessons. 

7. Vocabulary, Volapi\, and English-Volapllk. 
In addition there is a portrait of Schleyer, with extracts from his wiitings ; 
ment in VolapUk of the changes made by tbe second annual Congress ; and a kei 
for correcting home work. 


Tbe only American periodical devoted in whole or in part to the new iuternalional 
language is The Oflice. 

In it tbe department entitled ** Volaspodel," contains progressive lessons in 
Vo!apUk, with special reference to commercial correspondence. Published monthly. 
Subscription $1 a year. Specimen copies lO rents each. 

For circulars of tbe Hand Book of VolapUk, and for other information, address 

The Office Company, Publishers, 

37 College Place, New York. 

We aim at this first. If yon prepare a design 

ire, be sure to make it m sharp clear black Im 

t ordinary writing fluid, Please write U6 for < 

■ and enclose copy for estimate before placing yi 

r Kemember the beat la the cheaper In i 

Aletitiou PeniuBii's Art Journal. 

in cards), ' 

c; both forZCc. Flourishlfg youi 

n Writing, by Mall, •8.75, la advanc) 
• ■ ■ dh^uln 

\dU Addre-ii. It. S. Coll.IN§, BoxT. ^noJtvlile. feim." 

a dollar's worth of inspiration, untl Mar. ] 

■ Your letter l8 beauttrul." 

Slow ■ 
is Dead. 



G. BIXLER, ^^" a^S^-Fl^-vfirrsShS;!, "■^" WOQSTER, OHIO. 


!■ n. J. i^xjTivdi^isr 

& -w. 



The copies are elegantly engraved on copper, printed from st 

ne on 

the line 

St kind of very heavy 


paper. All copies new; no re-hash. There are 



art one contains seventeen slips. These slips ar 

not houud togetLer 

and one 

can be taken out of 

lae and the others kept clean. Every ni-ce?sarj 



his is the most complete and compreli- n-n. 


■ ink " 


n in conneuti'>n wlib 


e hard points. 







INlhut 1 Hill UllDglt," 

<g. paper, eto,. and 

_. 1 .1 reiurn. providing It be returned Id good eon<lition. 

t gene 

ceded to be the best 


3 work mailed In a neat and substantial case to any address In tbe 

stamps not taken. 
ther of the places named below that 1h nearer to yon : 


, MINNEAPOLIS, "" ' ~ " 

Mention "i 


"htTrt k 
pens can bave a sninple 

I for Tweiity-flve Cents. 


the oldest, brljilitesi 
tUe field or peiimansl 

llunay In Mie sphert^ -i 

Penmaosliip llepart ■ 

J, ScarborouglJ. SImhi 

Prnf. W. D. Bridge, of eii.uii.ui. 

Price 0UI7 $1 per fear. Sample 


Price IBc. 

The Model Guide to Penmanship. 

with Copy Slips on an Entirely Netr Plan. 
Prlcoii. Postpaid. 

Sample Copy Guide and Cover, with Copy Slips, 
aSc; iVactlce Itook, lOc; Prize Specimen, lOc: 
speclmoD of Onmmentul PGnmanHbip direct f 
the Pen, asc; GUI ■- " '" " ' 
meotal Speoliuei], 1 



0-13 615 East State Street. 

Charles Kollinson, 

for Iho past 13 years with D, T. Awes, 







Bxprej«I^ I 





All of Standard and Superior Quality. 




Indelibly markln; household fabrics wi 

jeat or proparatioo needed. The easiest 


Fifteen years on the market and uo fault found, 
other. Or. aoud 23 cents for It to 

Penman's Badge. 

f Stadent and Teacher 



" Question Books wllh Aaswera." This Is u series 
of tour small books, comprising U. S. HisUiry, 
Geography, Grammar and Arithmetlo, each boolt 

I practical questioi 

published that are complete enough 

only question books 

branch to be 

-, , -- -,acbers or others In 

nlnatloDB, or for reviewing pupils 

I Questions with 1 

he entire scope of Arithmetic, this 
rom in to 80 teat examples with answers and solu- 
Ions under each subject, the solutions being placed 
n Iho appendix. In this book there are over 1.100 

" 1001 Questions with Answers on GRAMMAR." 
^"" "' '"" ""uatratlons, parsing and analysl 

lustrations, fal"- — " '"'■ - 

and the parsing of t 

i illustrations, false 
the parsing of i 

I twice the price of 

The "1001 Questions with 


* Including the Federal Com 

PHT,"embracinB Descriptive, Physical and Matb 
matlcal Geography. The desoriptive questions a 
asked on each grand division separately, thus e 
ablingthe student to refresh hfa mind on any pi 
tlcnlar country without reading over the enti 


"Worth all others together."— .ffd'iri/i. 

e circulars free. 


Uliiig, (4^12) Detrol 

Paper Warehouse, 

Nos. 1 5 & 1 7 Beekman St., 


Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

For students, schools, and accountants It gives 
the most practical forma for the capital and small 
script alphabets: also the figures; thus keeping 
ever present and convenient before the writer 
correct forms for writing. This ruler la 15 Inchea 
In length, metal edged. 

Sent by mall 

It Is invaluat 

their writing. Address, 

It Is Invaluable to all who are seeking to improve 

lair nrrltlii);, AddfeSS, 


206 Broadway. 1 

BARNUM k CO., No. 20 N. Will 




Revised Ettitii 


good in the old l^aue is retained and put 
shape, while new matter haa been added 
to embody the latest and beet ideas. 
Typographically, the new issue Is a model of neat- 

of reference or an encyclopedia on the subject of 
it 13 purely a 


and Is arranged with the view of developing the 
THINKING CAPACITY of the student. Full 
explanations are given, but much Is left for the 
htudeut to work out, and results to find. 


embodying the entire work has been prepared 
which will enable ANY teacher to readily handle 
the work. 
If you want to Increase the Efficiency of your 

If you want to hold the Interest of your students 

In their Work ; 
If you want to Teach the Latest and Best Ideas; 
If you want to give your Students plenty to do 
You should by all means adopt this new Revised 
your text book. 





*l*W^ PATEN;{^^p°QVEME:Nts 

NOT FOUND IKI „,y,.,,p_ 








We want good, active, reliable iigents In every 
part of the United States and Canada not at present 
occupied by our agents, to take aubacrlptlons for 
the JoruNAL and to sell the new 


aud our other publications. We have agents who 
send us hundreds of subscriptiona every year, 
without going outside of their immediate neigh- 
borhood. Upon the liberal commissions we offer 
this Is a money-making business. Write at once, 
as we will close with the first reliable parties who 


D, T. AMES, Ediiob amd Pbopribtob. 

205 Broadway, N. Y, 

PIANO MARVEL. 1!^,'?;,"^^^^^.?.^^% 

bllicy ! Power 1 1 Brllllanoy 1 ! 1 Price 40c. Clroulara 
free. AgenU xeanUtt. A. R. Uoobb, Troy, N.T. 5-6 

Shorthand Writing 

Taught by mall. The beat system and thorough 
iostruciion. Send stamp for pamphlet and speci- 
men of writing. 

8-13 Teacher of Shorthand, I'ittsburg, Pa. 



lii.NUFIEI.b. MASS, 


J no position. Send stamp for trial lesson. In- 
motor. 50c. U. M. PERNIN. Detroit. Mich. 



W. W. OSQOODBT, PuWllbet, ao6helt«r, H. 7. 


Rook aiul Inslinctlon 

r 1,000 graduates. D. L. Scott-Brownk, 
Instructor. 261 West Hth St.. New 


of the few inatltutlons of Its k 
stenographic business 

. & HiCKCOX'S School of Shf 

lool St., Ooston, la the Ieadlu{ 

i TrainluK School In New England, 

$<| R/\ A neat box containing com- 

I m%J\Jm plete outfit for Shorlhand 
pupil!', such as note books, pencils, pens, rubber 
inkstand, etc., etc., will be sent, postpaid, or ex- 
pressape prepaid, to any part of (he United States 


> Broadway. New York. 



On the Mississippi, about 


Pelrce's System of Penmanship- 
Pelrce's Philosophical Treatise 
of Penmanship, and Pefrce's 
Celebrated Tracing Exercises. 

1st. A Membership in the Business Department is 

Membership in the Penmanship Depart- 

8d. The total expense Is about one-half that of 
ions In larger cities, 
acatlons. Applications for admission 
e any day In t'le year, 
guarantee rupsrtor InetmctioD and ex- 

lelter stamps for Journal, clrou- 
^ of Penmanship, 

th. Peirce's System of Penmanahtp, with Method 
..Instruction. Revise" - ■ 
eleventh edition r 

;nt8. Bv the dozL„. 

of Penmanship 





Thetot.. .... ... . _. 

iimiiar institutions In larger c 
... ... .,jjjg ^|._., 

llent results. 

and specimen of Penmanship. 

th. Peirce's System of Penmanal. 

Instruction. Revised, perfected, improved. The 
venth edition now icudy. Sample 
receipt of 25 cents. By the dozeu. : 

form aud now retails a 
[emember, It Is the onl' 
published ; cootuining s 


pages of superior paper. 

will be announced in these columns when ready, 
luth. A set of "Traciuc Exei'cistv '■' 

with Articles. Led _ _ _ 

all pertaining to Penmanship, aud covering 


. , when ready. 

Tracing Exercises " with each 

Address all communications to 

Chandler H. Peirce, 

12-tf R£OKUK, IOWA. 


The Standard Practical Penmanship a portfolio 
embracing a complete library of practical writing, 
including the new Magic Alphabet, capable of 
being written by any one iepibly five times as fast 

ing written by any one ieplbly five tli 
ordinary writing, is mailed for ll.Oi., .. 
New York ofHce only. Address 

Spencerian Business College, 36 Eut liih S 

, M.7. 


you are interested in learnine or teuchlnir pen- 
iship write us a postal cwrd at once, as we 
B something valuable for you. 



How freely ink flows from my pen I will send you 
12 plain cards with your name written Inttundty 
way^ and a copy of Oatkclit Miigaz\n$ for two 


I will send a system of freshly written exercises 
for home practice, a set of lapitals of ibe muscu- 
lar brand and a copy of the muguzlne. AddrevH, 

13-tf 70 Wabaab Avenue, Chicago, 111. 


Business College, 

707 to 713 Broad St.. Newark, N. J., 

Tralna Youdr Men. Boys. Mlddle-aced Men i 
Toune Ladles for a successful start In Busln 
Life The Largest Hnd moat popular School In tlio 
c..iintry Couree of study combines Theory with 
l'rtiiili:e, by a sysiem of business transactions. 
I I 11 real values. No Vacullons. Rates Low. 
I < ^ assisted to situations. The Illustrated 

- and College Journal mailed 

212 H. COLEMAN, 



449 M; 


St., Buffalo, N. Y., 


Business Education 


By means of direct Personal Correspondence. 

The First School of Its kind in America. 


Sludentt Tunp regUlered from tvery StaU anj 
Ttrriton/ and rtearty ail BrilUh American Provincce. 

The Course of Study and Practice includes 


DisUnce no objection. Low rates and satis- 
faction gvaranteed. Send two letter stamps for 
SS-page ADnonncetueut and TestlmoDlats. 


Pen Artist, Utica, N. Y., 

Pin- all kinds of ornamental Pen Work Memo- 
rials, lHjjlomas. Certlflctites. Resolutions, etc., en- 

pondunco gollclt^d with oartles having eOfn'OBslnK 
to be done. Pieces of fluurlMilnK fresh from the 
pen, 10 cents, 3 for 26 cents. Large pleoea ^ and 



111 Klve you o\F. SET np ALPHABETS FOR 

aSo. each, 6 for 

ess than $1. 
nd money will 

...rity of our machines, 
them unbroken at any time within 30 days C. O. D. 
for full price paid if not ABSOLUTELY SATIS- 
illustrated pamphlet and sample book of papers on 

339 Broadway, New York. 

Philadelphia, 834 Chestnut St. 
Boston, 201 Washington St. 

Washington, Le Droit Building. 
Baltimore, 9 N. Charles St. 
Minneapolis, 12 Third St. 
Chicago, 196 La Salle St. 

St. Louis, 308 N. Sixth St 
St. Paul, 116 E. Third St. 

Indianapolis, 84 E Market St. 
Kansas City, 322 West 9th St. 

"Williams' School of Penman- 
ship by Mail " 

Is now one of the departments of L,vs Anceles 
Business Ciillege and English Training Sobool. 

My school by mall is now a pronounced success. 
Twenty lessons for 95 00. Send for circulars. 
Those wishing a thorough drill under our personal 
Instruction will find no better place than the Pen- 
manship Department of this college. Send for 
College Journal- Specimens of oui' best work 30 
eta. D. B. WILLIAMS. Princpal, 


I, Cal. 

Will send a Specimen of his best 



Do You Write Cards? 

Every penman who wriles carda has found 
more or less trouble in getting the name on 
tlralght, no matter how good a writer he may be. 
A method has been diecovercd by which you can 
rule Cards and Instantly remove tne line without 
leaving the slightest trace of It. It Is simple 
, _ ..___._.._. "rice, 8Bo. No oi 

Circulars free A< 
Penman RItner's 

I. Joseph, Mo. 




EXCELLENT Black Copies of a 
drawn with any Pen (or Type Wr 



k lines, Permanent 


Catalogue School Sap- 


Send me your name written In full, and 
and I will send you one dozen or n 
writing it, with instructions : or send 
stamp, and I will send you a^^ 
hand, price list descriptive of 


ways o^ 


E Lessons b, 

Tracing E.terclses. Capltijs, 

E, PAR.SONS, Wilton Junction, Iowa. 

nrsiNBSs C01.1.EUE, 

Naihvllle, X«iui. 

rapid writing, 1 


eral hundred 


inlng; requlro no shaking 

Send for Illustrated I 


A Monthly Paper on Penman.ship, Beautifully Illustrated. 

The "Western Penman" contains Lessons In Writing, Lettering, Flourishing 
and Pen Drawing. 


A new Work on Penmanship by A. N. PALMER, editor of the " Western Penni«n." 
This book contains a graded course of Fifty Lessons In Muscular Movement Writing by Its author. 
A well graded and complete course of off-hand Flourishing, Lessons in Lettering, by Prof. H. W, 

Le=80ne in Pen Drawing by Prof. A. C. WEBB. FuII-paee Iliuatratlons by KIBBE, WEBB, 
CRANDLE, FARLEY. MOORE. KIMMlNO. nnd others, with Smaller lliustratlons bv other of tbe finest 
'enmen. This book is worth a Five-Dollar bill to any person inierented In penmanship. Any 
become a fine penmaa by studying the lessons given. The price of the book is One Dollar. 


Upon receipt of One Dollar. 


Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 


. devised for ruling 
ce for ruling down Lei „ 
s Columns, and saving two-thirds tbi 

s Dolti 

K down Ledger / 
a saving two-thirds the usuui ume, oe- 
sides doing the work as perfectly as a machine. 


jrted into an Oblique Holder for 
d the only perfect one in nne, be- 
adjustable to any angle while the pen point r 
'n a direct line wirh theaxis of ttiehoider, w 
B tipping over tendency unavoidable in the ordinary 

The ■• MULTIPLE " W as sure to be Indispensable t 
" ooi BS Is the rule Itself, ant" - '" 
i(h day in time and perfect 

Shading, and the only perfect 
to any angle while the pen pr 
position in a direct line wirh the axis of the hoider, which n 
oblique hojdfi 

I school BS Is the rule Itself, and wijl »ave Bevera'l 
Samples mailed for 'i 

schools wishing to adopt them. 


P. 0. Box 341, New ^ 

"circulars free. Addrei 

Prest, and Prin. 






. vEneravings: l_ 

Everj-body delighted. Tell all 


PARK, Faimetteburg, Pu. 

make from three pinta to one gallon of Ink. Un- 
surpassed for Btylographlo and founUln pens. 
Ruling InVs and Inks for blank-book manufaolurera 
a specia -y. WALPOLE DYE * CHEMICAL 
WORKS, anportera and manufacturers of every 
description of Dyes and ChemleaU. M Ouveb ^.. 


" ,FoToardsi 4o. Circular' 
'slsetS. Press for small, 
^newspaper $44. Bend 2 
aUmpa for List jr 





With Two Supplementary Books. 



systematize and teach writing in accordance with the usages of the best 
writers in the business world. 

giiishing features of " Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 25 per cent, in the hibor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write, 

A Sample Set, containing all nnmbers, sent for examination on receipt 
of $1.00. 

Full Descriptive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeman & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. 

Tills CoUeee fumlBhes, at moderate coatt the 
very best business training. The Course is an 
embodiment of the Intest and niost iipproved 
methods yet attained bf the best Americau Busi- 
ness CoUeRes. 

It ts proKresBire and tborouifh In all lt« appoint- 
ments and departments. 

The methods Tor lllustratlnK actual business In 

coiR-eded, by business educators frenerally, to be 
the very best yet devised by the Business Col- 
lege world. These " Business Practice " Depart- 
ments alone, in this institution, contain a more 
complete course of training than the entire course 
in many Business Colleges that claim to be among 
the best. 

Tte Principal of this Department Is an ex- 
perienced bookkeeper as well as a teacher 
of unsurpassed ability, and jtives his entire time 
to his pupils. For more complete Information, 
send for "The Conitnerclal World." 


■hip, and 1i, without euq exception, the best Id 

The Principal of this Department stands at 
the head of the Profession rb an Artist; and 
BS a Teacher of Penmanship, "he has no liv- 
ing equal," and devotes six hours dally to 
teaching. If you desire to become a Teacher, 
Penman and Artlat, attend ascboolTrhoUy de- 
voted to this one thing, and aisoplaoe yourself 
under a teacher vrbo gives his time to teaohlng. 
This School turns out more finished penmen 
than all the Business College Penmanship De- 
partments In the united States combined. 

Remember, the Specialty of this School of Pen- 
manship Is Teachers' Training, as well as the 
development of Pen Artists ; also niack- 
Uoard Drill. 

Send for "Tin 

■olal 1 


Eclectic School of Shorthand & Typewriting. 



A MaKiiifleciit Soiiv 

iits of this S}sti'iii lij miiiiy of An 
of Penmuitshi]) 1111 Further Notic 

Finest Penmen, will bo Sent Gratis to any Teacher 


1st. — The pupil does not have to write through from ten to twenty books 

ill order to Iciuii the System. Only six boolis. 

*d- — The letters are entirely free from useless lines lilsc double loops, ovals, 

etc. Tlic first complete system to present abbrcTiated forms of capitals. 




3d.— The lateral spacing is uniform, each word filling a given space and uo 

crowding or stretching to secure such results. 
4th — Beautifully printed by Lithography! No Cheap Belief Plate Printing ! 


Ahsolilteli/ lliisiirpasseil for lUiiaticityt 
S moot hit esfif attU VurabUiti/' 

Send 10 cents for unique card of differ- 
ent numbers. 

Sjind 10 cents for sample bottle in neat 
box. by mail, post-paid. 


' /■t^yLr^ ^yt4.-7n.d'uA.^i.^:zA^d-e-ef( 

5th.-Words used are all familiar to the pupil. See above copies. Contrast them with such 

words as ••zeugma, urqnesne, xylus, ten illy, mimetic and xuthns." 
6th.-Each book contains four pages of practice paper— one sixth more paper than in the books 

01 any other series— and the paper is the best ever nsed for copy-books. 
7th.— Business forms are elaborately engraved on steel and printed on tinted paper renderins 
tliem very attractive to the pupil. * 

8th.— Very low rates for introd uction. They are the cbeiipest books in An 




icA^'iLL^- BARNES & CO., Publishers,